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Management of sagittal synostosis in the Synostosis Research Group: baseline data and early outcomes

Cordell M. Baker, Vijay M. Ravindra, Barbu Gociman, Faizi A. Siddiqi, Jesse A. Goldstein, Matthew D. Smyth, Amy Lee, Richard C. E. Anderson, Kamlesh B. Patel, Craig Birgfeld, Ian F. Pollack, Thomas Imahiyerobo, John R. W. Kestle, and for the Synostosis Research Group

OBJECTIVE

Sagittal synostosis is the most common form of isolated craniosynostosis. Although some centers have reported extensive experience with this condition, most reports have focused on a single center. In 2017, the Synostosis Research Group (SynRG), a multicenter collaborative network, was formed to study craniosynostosis. Here, the authors report their early experience with treating sagittal synostosis in the network. The goals were to describe practice patterns, identify variations, and generate hypotheses for future research.

METHODS

All patients with a clinical diagnosis of isolated sagittal synostosis who presented to a SynRG center between March 1, 2017, and October 31, 2019, were included. Follow-up information through October 31, 2020, was included. Data extracted from the prospectively maintained SynRG registry included baseline parameters, surgical adjuncts and techniques, complications prior to discharge, and indications for reoperation. Data analysis was descriptive, using frequencies for categorical variables and means and medians for continuous variables.

RESULTS

Two hundred five patients had treatment for sagittal synostosis at 5 different sites. One hundred twenty-six patients were treated with strip craniectomy and 79 patients with total cranial vault remodeling. The most common strip craniectomy was wide craniectomy with parietal wedge osteotomies (44%), and the most common cranial vault remodeling procedure was total vault remodeling without forehead remodeling (63%). Preoperative mean cephalic indices (CIs) were similar between treatment groups: 0.69 for strip craniectomy and 0.68 for cranial vault remodeling. Thirteen percent of patients had other health problems. In the cranial vault cohort, 81% of patients who received tranexamic acid required a transfusion compared with 94% of patients who did not receive tranexamic acid. The rates of complication were low in all treatment groups. Five patients (2%) had an unintended reoperation. The mean change in CI was 0.09 for strip craniectomy and 0.06 for cranial vault remodeling; wide craniectomy resulted in a greater change in CI in the strip craniectomy group.

CONCLUSIONS

The baseline severity of scaphocephaly was similar across procedures and sites. Treatment methods varied, but cranial vault remodeling and strip craniectomy both resulted in satisfactory postoperative CIs. Use of tranexamic acid may reduce the need for transfusion in cranial vault cases. The wide craniectomy technique for strip craniectomy seemed to be associated with change in CI. Both findings seem amenable to testing in a randomized controlled trial.

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Laser interstitial thermal therapy for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: technical case report

David Y. A. Dadey, Ashwin A. Kamath, Eric C. Leuthardt, and Matthew D. Smyth

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare tumor occurring almost exclusively in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although open resection remains the standard therapy, complication rates remain high. To minimize morbidity, less invasive approaches, such as endoscope-assisted resection, radiosurgery, and chemotherapy with mTOR pathway inhibitors, are also used to treat these lesions. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a relatively new modality that is increasingly used to treat a variety of intracranial lesions. In this report, the authors describe two pediatric cases of SEGA that were treated with LITT. In both patients the lesion responded well to this treatment modality, with tumor shrinkage observed on follow-up MRI. These cases highlight the potential of LITT to serve as a viable minimally invasive therapeutic approach to the management of SEGAs in the pediatric population.

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Utilizing personalized stereotactic frames for laser interstitial thermal ablation of posterior fossa and mesiotemporal brain lesions: a single-institution series

David Y. A. Dadey, Ashwin A. Kamath, Matthew D. Smyth, Michael R. Chicoine, Eric C. Leuthardt, and Albert H. Kim

OBJECTIVE

The precision of laser probe insertion for interstitial thermal therapy of deep-seated lesions is limited by the method of stereotactic guidance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of customized STarFix 3D-printed stereotactic platforms to guide laser probe insertion into mesiotemporal and posterior fossa targets.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of 5 patients (12–55 years of age) treated with laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in which STarFix platforms were used for probe insertion. Bone fiducials were implanted in each patient's skull, and subsequent CT scans were used to guide the design of each platform and incorporate desired treatment trajectories. Once generated, the platforms were mounted on the patients' craniums and used to position the laser probe during surgery. Placement of the laser probe and the LITT procedure were monitored with intraoperative MRI. Perioperative and follow-up MRI were performed to identify and monitor changes in target lesions.

RESULTS

Accurate placement of the laser probe was observed in all cases. For all patients, thermal ablation was accomplished without intraoperative complications. Of the 4 patients with symptomatic lesions, 2 experienced complete resolution of symptoms, and 1 reported improved symptoms compared with baseline.

CONCLUSIONS

Customized stereotactic platforms were seamlessly incorporated into the authors' previously established LITT workflow and allowed for accurate treatment delivery.

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Comparison of the accuracy and proximal shunt failure rate of freehand placement versus intraoperative guidance in parietooccipital ventricular catheter placement

Thomas J. Wilson, Kathleen E. McCoy, Wajd N. Al-Holou, Sergio L. Molina, Matthew D. Smyth, and Stephen E. Sullivan

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this paper is to compare the accuracy of the freehand technique versus the use of intraoperative guidance (either ultrasound guidance or frameless stereotaxy) for placement of parietooccipital ventricular catheters and to determine factors associated with reduced proximal shunt failure.

METHODS

This retrospective cohort study included all patients from 2 institutions who underwent a ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting procedure in which a new parietooccipital ventricular catheter was placed between January 2005 and December 2013. Data abstracted for each patient included age, sex, method of ventricular catheter placement, side of ventricular catheter placement, Evans ratio, and bifrontal ventricular span. Postoperative radiographic studies were reviewed for accuracy of ventricular catheter placement. Medical records were also reviewed for evidence of shunt failure requiring revision. Standard statistical methods were used for analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 257 patients were included in the study: 134 from the University of Michigan and 123 from Washington University in St. Louis. Accurate ventricular catheter placement was achieved in 81.2% of cases in which intraoperative guidance was used versus 67.3% when the freehand technique was used. Increasing age reduced the likelihood of accurate catheter placement (OR 0.983, 95% CI 0.971–0.995; p = 0.005), while the use of intraoperative guidance significantly increased the likelihood (OR 2.809, 95% CI 1.406–5.618; p = 0.016). During the study period, 108 patients (42.0%) experienced shunt failure, 79 patients (30.7%) had failure involving the proximal catheter, and 53 patients (20.6%) had distal failure (valve or distal catheter). Increasing age reduced the likelihood of being free from proximal shunt failure (OR 0.983, 95% CI 0.970–0.995; p = 0.008), while both the use of intraoperative guidance (OR 2.385, 95% CI 1.227–5.032; p = 0.011), and accurate ventricular catheter placement (OR 3.424, 95% CI 1.796–6.524; p = 0.009) increased the likelihood.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of intraoperative guidance during parietooccipital ventricular catheter placement as part of a CSF shunt system significantly increases the likelihood of accurate catheter placement and subsequently reduces the rate of proximal shunt failure.