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Bruno Lazaro, Juan Pablo Sardi, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Brian Dial, Jeffrey Hills, Munish C. Gupta, Christine R. Baldus, Chun Po Yen, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is a severe form of proximal junctional kyphosis. Previous reports on PJF have been limited by heterogeneous cohorts and relatively short follow-ups. The authors’ objectives herein were to identify risk factors for PJF and to assess its long-term incidence and revision rates in a homogeneous cohort.

METHODS

The authors reviewed data from the Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis 1 trial (ASLS-1), a National Institutes of Health–sponsored prospective multicenter study. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥ 40 years, ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society revised 22-item questionnaire [SRS-22r] score ≤ 4.0 in pain, function, or self-image domains), and primary thoracolumbar fusion/fixation to the sacrum/pelvis of ≥ 7 levels. PJF was defined as a postoperative proximal junctional angle (PJA) change > 20°, fracture of the uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV) or UIV+1 with > 20% vertebral height loss, spondylolisthesis of UIV/UIV+1 > 3 mm, or UIV screw dislodgment.

RESULTS

One hundred sixty patients (141 women) were included in this analysis and had a median age of 62 years and a mean follow-up of 4.3 years (range 0.1–6.1 years). Forty-six patients (28.8%) had PJF at a median of 0.92 years (IQR 0.14, 1.23 years) following surgery. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, PJF rates at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 14.4%, 21.9%, 25.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, PJF was associated with greater age (p = 0.0316), greater body mass index (BMI; p = 0.0319), worse baseline patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; ODI, SRS-22r, and SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS]; all p < 0.04), the use of posterior column osteotomies (PCOs; p = 0.0039), and greater postoperative thoracic kyphosis (TK; p = 0.0031) and PJA (p < 0.001). The use of UIV hooks was protective against PJF (p = 0.0340). On regression analysis (without postoperative measures), PJF was associated with greater BMI (HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.007–1.153, p = 0.0317), lower preoperative PJA (HR 0.607, 95% CI 0.407–0.906, p = 0.0146), and greater preoperative TK (HR 1.362, 95% CI 1.082–1.715, p = 0.0085). Patients with PJF had worse PROMs at the last follow-up (ODI, SRS-22r subscore and self-image, and SF-12 PCS; p < 0.04). Sixteen PJF patients (34.8%) underwent revision, and PJF recurred in 3 (18.8%).

CONCLUSIONS

Among 160 primary ASLS patients with a median age of 62 years and predominant coronal deformity, the PJF rate was 28.8% at a mean 4.3-year follow-up, with a revision rate of 34.8%. On univariate analysis, PJF was associated with a greater age and BMI, worse baseline PROMs, the use of PCOs, and greater postoperative TK and PJA. The use of UIV hooks was protective against PJF. On multivariate analysis (without postoperative measures), a higher risk of PJF was associated with greater BMI and preoperative TK and lower preoperative PJA.

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Juan Pablo Sardi, Bruno Lazaro, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Brian Dial, Jeffrey Hills, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Munish Gupta, Christine R. Baldus, Chun Po Yen, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Previous reports of rod fracture (RF) in adult spinal deformity are limited by heterogeneous cohorts, low follow-up rates, and relatively short follow-up durations. Since the majority of RFs present > 2 years after surgery, true occurrence and revision rates remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to better understand the risk factors for RF and assess its occurrence and revision rates following primary thoracolumbar fusions to the sacrum/pelvis for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) in a prospective series with long-term follow-up.

METHODS

Patient records were obtained from the Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis–1 (ASLS-1) database, an NIH-sponsored multicenter, prospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients aged 40–80 years undergoing primary surgeries for ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society-22r ≤ 4.0 in pain, function, and/or self-image) with instrumented fusion of ≥ 7 levels that included the sacrum/pelvis. Patients with and without RF were compared to assess risk factors for RF and revision surgery.

RESULTS

Inclusion criteria were met by 160 patients (median age 62 years, IQR 55.7–67.9 years). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (IQR 3.8–6.6 years), there were 92 RFs in 62 patients (38.8%). The median time to RF was 3.0 years (IQR 1.9–4.54 years), and 73% occurred > 2 years following surgery. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Baseline radiographic, clinical, and demographic characteristics were similar between patients with and without RF. In Cox regression models, greater postoperative pelvic tilt (HR 1.895, 95% CI 1.196–3.002, p = 0.0065) and greater estimated blood loss (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.036, p = 0.0088) were associated with increased risk of RF. Thirty-eight patients (61% of all RFs) underwent revision surgery. Bilateral RF was predictive of revision surgery (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.8–6.9, p = 0.0002), while patients with unilateral nondisplaced RFs were less likely to require revision (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18–0.84, p = 0.016).

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides what is to the authors’ knowledge the highest-quality data to date on RF rates following ASLS surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 38.8% of patients had at least one RF. Estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Greater estimated blood loss and postoperative pelvic tilt were significant risk factors for RF. These findings emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up to realize the true prevalence and cumulative incidence of RF.

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Wesley M. Durand, Alan H. Daniels, Kevin DiSilvestro, Renaud Lafage, Bassel G. Diebo, Peter G. Passias, Han Jo Kim, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Munish C. Gupta, Eric O. Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Jeffrey L. Gum, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Robert K. Eastlack, Khaled Kebaish, Alex Soroceanu, Richard A. Hostin, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames, Robert A. Hart, D. Kojo Hamilton, and

OBJECTIVE

Revision surgery is often necessary for adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. Satisfaction with management is an important component of health-related quality of life. The authors hypothesized that patients who underwent multiple revision surgeries following ASD correction would exhibit lower self-reported satisfaction scores.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study of 668 patients who underwent ASD surgery and were eligible for a minimum 2-year follow-up. Visits were stratified by occurrence prior to the index surgery (period 0), after the index surgery only (period 1), after the first revision only (period 2), and after the second revision only (period 3). Patients were further stratified by prior spine surgery before their index surgery. Scoliosis Research Society–22 (SRS-22r) health-related quality-of-life satisfaction subscore and total satisfaction scores were evaluated at all periods using multiple linear regression and adjustment for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index.

RESULTS

In total, 46.6% of the study patients had undergone prior spine surgery before their index surgery. The overall revision rate was 21.3%. Among patients with no spine surgery prior to the index surgery, SRS-22r satisfaction scores increased from period 0 to 1 (from 2.8 to 4.3, p < 0.0001), decreased after one revision from period 1 to 2 (4.3 to 3.9, p = 0.0004), and decreased further after a second revision from period 2 to 3 (3.9 to 3.3, p = 0.0437). Among patients with spine surgery prior to the index procedure, SRS-22r satisfaction increased from period 0 to 1 (2.8 to 4.2, p < 0.0001) and decreased from period 1 to 2 (4.2 to 3.8, p = 0.0011). No differences in follow-up time from last surgery were observed (all p > 0.3). Among patients with multiple revisions, 40% experienced rod fracture, 40% proximal junctional kyphosis, and 33% pseudarthrosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients undergoing ASD surgery, revision surgery is associated with decreased satisfaction, and multiple revisions are associated with additive detriment to satisfaction among patients initially undergoing primary surgery. These findings have direct implications for preoperative patient counseling and establishment of postoperative expectations.

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Elias Elias, Shay Bess, Breton G. Line, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Peter Passias, Zeina Nasser, Jeffrey L. Gum, Khaled Kebaish, Robert Eastlack, Alan H. Daniels, Gregory Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, D. Kojo Hamilton, Michael P. Kelly, Munish Gupta, Robert Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Douglas Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, and

OBJECTIVE

Adult cervical deformity (ACD) has high complication rates due to surgical complexity and patient frailty. Very few studies have focused on longer-term outcomes of operative ACD treatment. The objective of this study was to assess minimum 2-year outcomes and complications of ACD surgery.

METHODS

A multicenter, prospective observational study was performed at 13 centers across the United States to evaluate surgical outcomes for ACD. Demographics, complications, radiographic parameters, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D], and numeric rating scale [NRS] for neck and back pain) were evaluated, and analyses focused on patients with ≥ 2-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of 169 patients with ACD who were eligible for the study, 102 (60.4%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.4 years, range 2–8.1 years). The mean age at surgery was 62 years (SD 11 years). Surgical approaches included anterior-only (22.8%), posterior-only (39.6%), and combined (37.6%). PROMs significantly improved from baseline to last follow-up, including Neck Disability Index (from 47.3 to 33.0) and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (from 12.0 to 12.8; for patients with baseline score ≤ 14), neck pain NRS (from 6.8 to 3.8), back pain NRS (from 5.5 to 4.8), EQ-5D score (from 0.74 to 0.78), and EQ-5D visual analog scale score (from 59.5 to 66.6) (all p ≤ 0.04). More than half of the patients (n = 58, 56.9%) had at least one complication, with the most common complications including dysphagia, distal junctional kyphosis, instrumentation failure, and cardiopulmonary events. The patients who did not achieve 2-year follow-up (n = 67) were similar to study patients based on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and PROMs. Over the course of follow-up, 23 of the total 169 enrolled patients were reported to have died. Notably, these represent all-cause mortalities during the course of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This multicenter, prospective analysis demonstrates that operative treatment for ACD provides significant improvement of health-related quality of life at a mean 3.4-year follow-up, despite high complication rates and a high rate of all-cause mortality that is reflective of the overall frailty of this patient population. To the authors’ knowledge, this study represents the largest and most comprehensive prospective effort to date designed to assess the intermediate-term outcomes and complications of operative treatment for ACD.

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Laura A. Snyder, Melissa Erickson, Justin S. Smith, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

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Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Alex Moy Fong, Basel Sheikh Alshabab, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Eric O. Klineberg, Gregory Mundis Jr., Peter G. Passias, Munish Gupta, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames, Virginie Lafage, and

OBJECTIVE

Hyperextension of C0–2 is a debilitating compensatory mechanism used to maintain horizontal gaze, analogous to high pelvic tilt in the lumbopelvic complex to maintain an upright posture. This study aims to investigate the impact of cervical deformity (CD) correction on this hyperextension. The authors hypothesize that correction of cervical sagittal malalignment allows for relaxation of C0–2 hyperextension and improved clinical outcomes.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted of a multicenter database of patients with CD undergoing spinal realignment and fusion caudal to C2 and cephalad to the pelvis. Range of motion (ROM) and reserve of extension (ROE) were calculated across C2–7 and C0–2. The association between C2–7 correction and change in C0–2 ROE was investigated while controlling for horizontal gaze, followed by stratification into ΔC2–7 percentiles.

RESULTS

Sixty-five patients were included (mean age 61.8 ± 9.6 years, 68% female). At baseline, patients had cervical kyphosis (C2–7, −11.7° ± 18.2°; T1 slope–cervical lordosis mismatch, 38.6° ± 18.6°), negative global alignment (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] −12.8 ± 71.2 mm), and hyperlordosis at C0–2 (mean 33.2° ± 11.8°). The mean ROM was 25.7° ± 17.7° and 21.3° ± 9.9° at C2–7 and C0–2, respectively, with an ROE of approximately 9° for each segment. Limited C0–2 ROM and ROE correlated with the Neck Disability Index (r = −0.371 and −0.394, p < 0.01). The mean number of levels fused was 7.0 ± 3.1 (24.6% anterior, 43.1% posterior), with 87.7% undergoing at least an osteotomy. At 1 year, mean C2–7 increased to 5.5° ± 13.4°, SVA became neutral (11.5 ± 54.8 mm), C0–2 hyperlordosis decreased to 27.8° ± 11.7°, and thoracic kyphosis (TK) increased to −49.4° ± 18.1° (all p < 0.001). Concurrently, mean C0–2 ROM increased to 27.6° ± 8.1° and C2–7 ROM decreased significantly to 9.0° ± 12.3° without a change in ROE. Controlling for horizontal gaze, change in C2–7 lordosis significantly correlated with increased TK (r = −0.617, p < 0.001), decreased C0–2 (r = −0.747, p < 0.001), and increased C0–2 ROE (r = 0.550, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

CD correction can significantly impact cephalad and caudal compensation in the upper cervical and thoracic spine. Restoration of cervical alignment resulted in increased C0–2 ROE and TK and was also associated with improved clinical outcome.

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Elias Elias, Shay Bess, Breton Line, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Peter G. Passias, Zeina Nasser, Jeffrey L. Gum, Khal Kebaish, Robert Eastlack, Alan H. Daniels, Gregory Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, D. Kojo Hamilton, Michael P. Kelly, Munish Gupta, Robert Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Douglas Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, and

OBJECTIVE

The current literature has primarily focused on the 2-year outcomes of operative adult spinal deformity (ASD) treatment. Longer term durability is important given the invasiveness, complications, and costs of these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess minimum 3-year outcomes and complications of ASD surgery.

METHODS

Operatively treated ASD patients were assessed at baseline, follow-up, and through mailings. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society–22r (SRS-22r) questionnaire, mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-36, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain. Complications were classified as perioperative (≤ 90 days), delayed (90 days to 2 years), and long term (≥ 2 years). Analyses focused on patients with minimum 3-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of 569 patients, 427 (75%) with minimum 3-year follow-up (mean ± SD [range] 4.1 ± 1.1 [3.0–9.6] years) had a mean age of 60.8 years and 75% were women. Operative treatment included a posterior approach for 426 patients (99%), with a mean ± SD 12 ± 4 fusion levels. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed in 35 (8%) patients, and 89 (21%) underwent 3-column osteotomy. All PROMs improved significantly from baseline to last follow-up, including scores on ODI (45.4 to 30.5), PCS (31.0 to 38.5), MCS (45.3 to 50.6), SRS-22r total (2.7 to 3.6), SRS-22r activity (2.8 to 3.5), SRS-22r pain (2.3 to 3.4), SRS-22r appearance (2.4 to 3.5), SRS-22r mental (3.4 to 3.7), SRS-22r satisfaction (2.7 to 4.1), NRS for back pain (7.1 to 3.8), and NRS for leg pain (4.8 to 3.0) (all p < 0.001). Degradations in some outcome measures were observed between the 2-year and last follow-up evaluations, but the magnitudes of these degradations were modest and arguably not clinically significant. Overall, 277 (65%) patients had at least 1 complication, including 185 (43%) perioperative, 118 (27%) delayed, and 56 (13%) long term. Notably, the 142 patients who did not achieve 3-year follow-up were similar to the study patients in terms of demographic characteristics, deformities, and baseline PROMs and had similar rates and types of complications.

CONCLUSIONS

This prospective multicenter analysis demonstrated that operative ASD treatment provided significant improvement of health-related quality of life at minimum 3-year follow-up (mean 4.1 years), suggesting that the benefits of surgery for ASD remain durable at longer follow-up. These findings should prove useful for counseling, cost-effectiveness assessments, and efforts to improve the safety of care.

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Jacob K. Greenberg, Michael P. Kelly, Joshua M. Landman, Justin K. Zhang, Shay Bess, Justin S. Smith, Lawrence G. Lenke, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

The Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis–1 (ASLS-1) trial demonstrated the benefit of adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) surgery. However, the extent to which individuals differ in their postoperative recovery trajectories is unknown. This study’s objective was to evaluate variability in and factors moderating recovery trajectories after ASLS surgery.

METHODS

The authors used longitudinal, multilevel models to analyze postoperative recovery trajectories following ASLS surgery. Study outcomes included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score and Scoliosis Research Society–22 (SRS-22) subscore, which were measured every 3 months until 2 years postoperatively. The authors evaluated the influence of preoperative disability level, along with other potential trajectory moderators, including radiographic, comorbidity, pain/function, demographic, and surgical factors. The impact of different parameters was measured using the R2, which represented the amount of variability in ODI/SRS-22 explained by each model. The R2 ranged from 0 (no variability explained) to 1 (100% of variability explained).

RESULTS

Among 178 patients, there was substantial variability in recovery trajectories. Applying the average trajectory to each patient explained only 15% of the variability in ODI and 21% of the variability in SRS-22 subscore. Differences in preoperative disability (ODI/SRS-22) had the strongest influence on recovery trajectories, with patients having moderate disability experiencing the greatest and most rapid improvement after surgery. Reflecting this impact, accounting for the preoperative ODI/SRS-22 level explained an additional 56%–57% of variability in recovery trajectory, while differences in the rate of postoperative change explained another 7%–9%. Among the effect moderators tested, pain/function variables—such as visual analog scale back pain score—had the biggest impact, explaining 21%–25% of variability in trajectories. Radiographic parameters were the least influential, explaining only 3%–6% more variance than models with time alone. The authors identified several significant trajectory moderators in the final model, such as significant adverse events and the number of levels fused.

CONCLUSIONS

ASLS patients have highly variable postoperative recovery trajectories, although most reach steady state at 12 months. Preoperative disability was the most important influence, although other factors, such as number of levels fused, also impacted recovery.

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James P. Wondra II, Michael P. Kelly, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Jacob K. Greenberg, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Lawrence G. Lenke, and Keith Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) is a widespread and debilitating subset of adult spinal deformity. Although many patients benefit from operative treatment, surgery entails substantial cost and risk for adverse events. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are patient-centered tools used to evaluate the appropriateness of surgery and to assist in the shared decision-making process. Framing realistic patient expectations should include the possible functional limitation to improvement inherent in surgical intervention, such as multilevel fusion to the sacrum. The authors’ objective was to predict postoperative ASLS PROMs by using clustering analysis, generalized longitudinal regression models, percentile analysis, and clinical improvement analysis of preoperative health-related quality-of-life scores for use in surgical counseling.

METHODS

Operative results from the combined ASLS cohorts were examined. PROM score clustering after surgery investigated limits of surgical improvement. Patients were categorized by baseline disability (mild, moderate, moderate to severe, or severe) according to preoperative Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)–22 and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Responder analysis for patients achieving improvement meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) standards was performed using both fixed-threshold and patient-specific values (MCID = 30% of remaining scale, SCB = 50%). Best (top 5%), worst (bottom 5%), and median scores were calculated across disability categories.

RESULTS

A total of 171/187 (91%) of patients with ASLS achieved 2-year follow-up. Patients rarely achieved a PROM ceiling for any measure, with 33%–43% of individuals clustering near 4.0 for SRS domains. Patients with severe baseline disability (< 2.0) SRS-pain and SRS-function scores were often left with moderate to severe disability (2.0–2.9), unlike patients with higher (≥ 3.0) initial PROM values. Patients with mild disability according to baseline SRS-function score were unlikely to improve. Crippling baseline ODI disability (> 60) commonly left patients with moderate disability (median ODI = 32). As baseline ODI disability increased, patients were more likely to achieve MCID and SCB (p < 0.001). Compared to fixed threshold values for MCID and SCB, patient-specific values were more sensitive to change for patients with minimal ODI baseline disability (p = 0.008) and less sensitive to change for patients with moderate to severe SRS subscore disability (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that ASLS surgeries have a limit to possible improvement, probably due to both baseline disability and the effects of surgery. The most disabled patients often had moderate to severe disability (SRS < 3, ODI > 30) at 2 years, emphasizing the importance of patient counseling and expectation management.

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Renaud Lafage, Alex M. Fong, Eric Klineberg, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Douglas Burton, Han Jo Kim, Jonathan Elysee, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Peter Passias, Munish Gupta, Richard Hostin, Frank Schwab, and Virginie Lafage

OBJECTIVE

Adult spinal deformity is a complex pathology that benefits greatly from surgical treatment. Despite continuous innovation, little is known regarding continuous changes in surgical techniques and the complications rate. The objective of the current study was to investigate the evolution of the patient profiles and surgical complications across a single prospective multicenter database.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective review of a prospective, multicenter database of surgically treated patients with adult spinal deformity (thoracic kyphosis > 60°, sagittal vertical axis > 5 cm, pelvic tilt > 25°, or Cobb angle > 20°) with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were stratified into 3 equal groups by date of surgery. The three groups’ demographic data, preoperative data, surgical information, and complications were then compared. A moving average of 320 patients was used to visualize and investigate the evolution of the complication across the enrollment period.

RESULTS

A total of 928/1260 (73.7%) patients completed their 2-year follow-up, with an enrollment rate of 7.7 ± 4.1 patients per month. Across the enrollment period (2008–2018) patients became older (mean age increased from 56.7 to 64.3 years) and sicker (median Charlson Comorbidity Index rose from 1.46 to 2.08), with more pure sagittal deformity (type N). Changes in surgical treatment included an increased use of interbody fusion, more anterior column release, and a decrease in the 3-column osteotomy rate, shorter fusion, and more supplemental rods and bone morphogenetic protein use. There was a significant decrease in major complications associated with a reoperation (from 27.4% to 17.1%) driven by a decrease in radiographic failures (from 12.3% to 5.2%), despite a small increase in neurological complications.

The overall complication rate has decreased over time, with the lowest rate of any complication (51.8%) during the period from August 2014 to March 2017. Major complications associated with reoperation decreased rapidly in the 2014–2015. Major complications not associated with reoperation had the lowest level (21.0%) between February 2014 and October 2016.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite an increase in complexity of cases, complication rates did not increase and the rate of complications leading to reoperation decreased. These improvements reflect the changes in practice (supplemental rod, proximal junctional kyphosis prophylaxis, bone morphogenetic protein use, anterior correction) to ensure maintenance of status or improved outcomes.