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Use of trans sodium crocetinate for sensitizing glioblastoma multiforme to radiation

Laboratory investigation

Jason Sheehan, Adina Ionescu, Nader Pouratian, D. Kojo Hamilton, David Schlesinger, Rod J. Oskouian Jr., and Charles Sansur

Object

Adjuvant treatment with radiation (radiation therapy or radiosurgery) is a mainstay of treatment for patients harboring glioblastomas multiforme (GBM). Hypoxic regions within the tumor make cells less sensitive to radiation therapy. Trans sodium crocetinate (TSC) has been shown to increase oxygen diffusion in the brain and elevate the partial brain oxygen level. The goal of this study was to evaluate the radiosensitizing effects of TSC on GBM tumors.

Methods

A rat C6 glioma model was used, in which C6 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the rat brain to create a tumor. Following creation of a right frontal tumor, animals were randomized into 1 of 4 groups: 1) TSC alone (animal treated with moderate-dose TSC only); 2) radiation (animals receiving 8 Gy of cranial radiation); 3) radiation and low-dose TSC (animals receiving 8 Gy of radiation and 50 μg/kg of TSC); or 4) radiation and moderate-dose TSC (animals receiving 8 Gy of radiation and 100 μg/kg of TSC). Animals were observed clinically for 60 days or until death. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed at 2-week intervals on each animal and quantitatively evaluated for tumor response. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on all brain tumors. Survival differences were also evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method.

Results

On MR imaging, a statistically significant reduction in tumor size was seen in the group receiving moderate-dose TSC and radiation treatment compared with the group receiving radiation treatment alone. The rate of tumor growth was significantly less for the combination of TSC and radiation treatment compared with either modality alone. Median survival times for the TSC-only and the radiation therapy–only groups were 15 and 30 days, respectively. The 60-day median survival times for the groups receiving a combination of either low- or moderate-dose TSC with radiation therapy were statistically improved compared with those for the other treatment groups.

Conclusions

Use of TSC improves the extent of GBM tumor regression following radiation therapy and enhances survival. Radiosensitization of hypoxic tumors through increased oxygen diffusion may have clinical utility in patients with GBM tumors but must be explored in a clinical trial.

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Brainstem Gliomas and Gamma Knife

Ayhan Kanat

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Gamma Knife surgery for neurocytoma

Chun Po Yen, Jason Sheehan, Greg Patterson, and Ladislau Steiner

Object

Although considered benign tumors, neurocytomas have various biological behaviors, histological patterns, and clinical courses. In the last 15 years, fractionated radiotherapy and radiosurgery in addition to microsurgery have been used in their management. In this study, the authors present their experience using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of these tumors.

Methods

Between 1989 and 2004, the authors performed GKS in seven patients with a total of nine neurocytomas. Three patients harbored five recurrent tumors after a gross-total resection, three had progression of previous partially resected tumors, and one had undergone a tumor biopsy only. The mean tumor volume at the time of GKS ranged from 1.4 to 19.8 cm3 (mean 6.0 cm3). A mean peripheral dose of 16 Gy was prescribed to the tumor margin with the median isodose configuration of 32.5%.

Results

After a mean follow-up period of 60 months, four of the nine tumors treated disappeared and four shrank significantly. Because of secondary hemorrhage, an accurate tumor volume could not be determined in one. Four patients were asymptomatic during the follow-up period, and the condition of the patient who had residual hemiparesis from a previous transcortical resection of the tumor was stable. Additionally, the patient who experienced tumor hemorrhage required a shunt revision, and another patient died of sepsis due to a shunt infection.

Conclusions

Based on this limited experience, GKS seems to be an appropriate management alternative. It offers control over the tumor with the benefits of minimal invasiveness and low morbidity rates. Recurrence, however, is not unusual following both microsurgery and GKS. Open-ended follow-up imaging is required to detect early recurrence and determine the need for retreatment.

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Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal schwannoma

Jason Sheehan, Chun Po Yen, Yasser Arkha, David Schlesinger, and Ladislau Steiner

Object

Trigeminal schwannomas are rare intracranial tumors. In the past, resection and radiation therapy were the mainstays of their treatment. More recently, neurosurgeons have begun to use radiosurgery in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas because of its successful use in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas. In this article the authors evaluate the radiological and clinical outcomes in a series of patients in whom Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) was used to treat trigeminal schwannomas.

Methods

Twenty-six patients with trigeminal schwannomas underwent GKS at the University of Virginia Lars Lek-sell Gamma Knife Center between 1989 and 2005. Five of these patients had neurofibromatosis and one patient was lost to follow up. The median tumor volume was 3.96 cm3, and the mean follow-up period was 48.5 months. The median prescription radiation dose was 15 Gy, and the median prescription isodose configuration was 50%. There was clinical improvement in 18 patients (72%), a stable lesion in four patients (16%), and worsening of the disease in three patients (12%). On imaging, the schwannomas shrank in 12 patients (48%), remained stable in 10 patients (40%), and increased in size in three patients (12%). These results were comparable for primary and adjuvant GKSs. No tumor growth following GKS was observed in the patients with neurofibromatosis.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery affords a favorable risk-to-benefit profile for patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas. Larger studies with open-ended follow-up review will be necessary to determine the long-term results and complications of GKS in the treatment of trigeminal schwannomas.

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Changing paradigms for the treatment of brain metastasis

Jason Sheehan and Jonas Sheehan

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Subtotal obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations after Gamma Knife surgery

Peter Varady, Jason Sheehan, Melita Steiner, and Ladislau Steiner

Heading : Chun Po Yen

Object

Subtotal obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) implies a complete angiographic disappearance of the AVM nidus but persistence of an early filling draining vein, indicating that residual shunting is still present; hence, per definition there is still a patent AVM and the risk of bleeding is not eliminated. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of hemorrhage for patients with subtotal obliteration of AVMs.

Methods

After GKS for cerebral AVMs, follow-up angiography demonstrated a subtotally obliterated lesion in 159 patients. Of these, in 16 patients a subtotally obliterated AVM developed after a second GKS was performed for the partially obliterated lesion. The mean age of these patients was 35.2 years at the time of the diagnosis of subtotally obliterated AVMs. The lesion volumes at the time of initial GKS treatment ranged from 0.1 to 11.5 cm3 (mean 2.5 cm3). The mean peripheral dose used in the 175 GKS treatments was 22.5 Gy (median 23 Gy, range 15–31 Gy). To achieve total obliteration of the AVM, 23 patients underwent a new GKS targeting the proximal end of the early filling vein. The mean peripheral dose given in these cases was 23 Gy (median 24, range 18–25 Gy).

The incidence of subtotally obliterated AVMs was 7.6% from a total of 2093 AVMs treated and in which follow-up imaging was available. The diagnosis of subtotally obliterated AVMs was made a mean of 29.4 months (range 4–178 months) after GKS. The number of patient-years at risk (from the time of the diagnosis of subtotally obliterated AVMs until either the confirmation of a total obliteration of the lesion on angiography or the time of the latest follow-up angio-graphic study that still visualized the early filling vein) was a mean of 3.9 years, ranging from 0.5 to 13.5 years, and a total of 601 patient-years. There was no case of bleeding after the diagnosis of subtotally obliterated AVMs. Of 90 patients who did not undergo further treatment and in whom follow-up angiography studies were available, the same early filling veins still filled in 24 (26.7%), and the subtotally obliterated AVMs were subsequently obliterated in 66 patients (73.3%). In 19 patients who underwent repeated GKS for subtotally obliterated AVMs and in whom follow-up angiography studies were available, the AVMs were obliterated in 15 (78.9%) and remained patent in four (21.1%).

Conclusions

The fact that none of the patients with subtotally obliterated AVMs suffered a rupture is not compatible with the assumption of an unchanged risk of hemorrhage for these lesions, and implies that the protection from re-bleeding in patients with subtotal obliteration is significant. Subtotal obliteration does not necessarily seem to be a stage of an ongoing obliteration. At least in some cases it represents an end point of this process, with no subsequent obliteration occurring. This observation requires further confirmation by open-ended follow-up imaging.

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Gamma Knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas

Chun Po Yen, Jason Sheehan, Melita Steiner, Greg Patterson, and Ladislau Steiner

Object

Focal tumors, a distinct subgroup of which is composed of brainstem gliomas, may have an indolent clinical course. In the past, their management involved monitoring of open-ended imaging studies and shunt placement if cerebrospinal fluid diversion was required. Nonetheless, their treatment remains a significant challenge for neurosurgeons. Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has recently been tried as an alternative to surgical extirpation. In the present study the authors assess clinical and imaging results in 20 patients who harbored focal brainstem gliomas treated with GKS between 1990 and 2001.

Methods

There were 10 male and 10 female patients with a mean age of 19.1 years. Sixteen tumors were located in the midbrain, three in the pons, and one in the medulla oblongata. The mean tumor volume at the time of GKS was 2.5 cm3. In 10 cases a tumor specimen was obtained either by open surgery or stereotactic biopsy, securing the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma in five patients and nonpilocytic astrocytoma in five others. In the remaining 10 cases, the diagnosis was based on clinical and neuroimaging findings. The prescription Gamma Knife dose varied between 10 and 18 Gy, except in three patients who were receiving a boost to a site in which external-beam radiation was previously delivered. An average of four isocenters were utilized per GKS.

Patients were followed up for a mean of 78.0 months. The tumors disappeared in four patients and shrank in 12 patients. Of these patients, one experienced transitory extrapyramidal symptoms and fluctuating impairment of consciousness (from somnolence to coma) for 6 months. Another patient whose tumor disappeared 3 years following GKS died of stroke 8 years postoperatively. The rest of the patients either remained stable or improved clinically. Tumor progression occurred in four patients; of these four, one patient developed hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, two showed neurological deterioration, and one 4-year-old boy died of tumor progression.

Conclusions

Gamma Knife surgery may be an effective primary treatment or adjunct to open surgery for focal brainstem gliomas.

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Gamma Knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas

Bruce E. Pollock

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Introduction to the Gamma Knife surgery supplement: current philosophy and expanding horizons

Jason Sheehan

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Shielding strategies for Gamma Knife surgery of pituitary adenomas

David Schlesinger, John Snell, and Jason Sheehan

Object

The relative performances of two plugging strategies commonly used for pituitary adenoma dose plans were evaluated in terms of factors that influence dose plan quality.

Methods

Dose plans and clinical treatment data were obtained in 108 patients treated with the Model C Gamma Knife at the University of Virginia. These data were analyzed to determine factors (including plugging strategy) influencing the quality of the dose plans in terms of beam time, conformity, dose to the optic apparatus, and plugging burden.

For both secretory and nonsecreory adenomas, beam time (psecretory < 0.001, pnonsecretory = 0.015) and plugging burden (psecretory = 0.007, pnonsecretory = 0.038) were reduced when using the customized plugging strategy. The choice of plugging strategy was found to play no significant role in conformity or dose to the optic apparatus. Other factors found to play a significant role in adenoma dose plan quality included tumor volume, prescription dose, and distance from the target to the optic pathways.

Conclusions

While both plugging strategies were effective at providing the required protection to the optic pathways, the authors found that the customized plugging strategy provided more efficient performance in pituitary adenoma treatments.