Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 230 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Shaffrey, Christopher I. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Bruno Lazaro, Juan Pablo Sardi, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Brian Dial, Jeffrey Hills, Munish C. Gupta, Christine R. Baldus, Chun Po Yen, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is a severe form of proximal junctional kyphosis. Previous reports on PJF have been limited by heterogeneous cohorts and relatively short follow-ups. The authors’ objectives herein were to identify risk factors for PJF and to assess its long-term incidence and revision rates in a homogeneous cohort.

METHODS

The authors reviewed data from the Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis 1 trial (ASLS-1), a National Institutes of Health–sponsored prospective multicenter study. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥ 40 years, ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society revised 22-item questionnaire [SRS-22r] score ≤ 4.0 in pain, function, or self-image domains), and primary thoracolumbar fusion/fixation to the sacrum/pelvis of ≥ 7 levels. PJF was defined as a postoperative proximal junctional angle (PJA) change > 20°, fracture of the uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV) or UIV+1 with > 20% vertebral height loss, spondylolisthesis of UIV/UIV+1 > 3 mm, or UIV screw dislodgment.

RESULTS

One hundred sixty patients (141 women) were included in this analysis and had a median age of 62 years and a mean follow-up of 4.3 years (range 0.1–6.1 years). Forty-six patients (28.8%) had PJF at a median of 0.92 years (IQR 0.14, 1.23 years) following surgery. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, PJF rates at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 14.4%, 21.9%, 25.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, PJF was associated with greater age (p = 0.0316), greater body mass index (BMI; p = 0.0319), worse baseline patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; ODI, SRS-22r, and SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS]; all p < 0.04), the use of posterior column osteotomies (PCOs; p = 0.0039), and greater postoperative thoracic kyphosis (TK; p = 0.0031) and PJA (p < 0.001). The use of UIV hooks was protective against PJF (p = 0.0340). On regression analysis (without postoperative measures), PJF was associated with greater BMI (HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.007–1.153, p = 0.0317), lower preoperative PJA (HR 0.607, 95% CI 0.407–0.906, p = 0.0146), and greater preoperative TK (HR 1.362, 95% CI 1.082–1.715, p = 0.0085). Patients with PJF had worse PROMs at the last follow-up (ODI, SRS-22r subscore and self-image, and SF-12 PCS; p < 0.04). Sixteen PJF patients (34.8%) underwent revision, and PJF recurred in 3 (18.8%).

CONCLUSIONS

Among 160 primary ASLS patients with a median age of 62 years and predominant coronal deformity, the PJF rate was 28.8% at a mean 4.3-year follow-up, with a revision rate of 34.8%. On univariate analysis, PJF was associated with a greater age and BMI, worse baseline PROMs, the use of PCOs, and greater postoperative TK and PJA. The use of UIV hooks was protective against PJF. On multivariate analysis (without postoperative measures), a higher risk of PJF was associated with greater BMI and preoperative TK and lower preoperative PJA.

Restricted access

Brandon A. Sherrod, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Graham Mulvaney, Nitin Agarwal, Andrew K. Chan, Anthony L. Asher, Domagoj Coric, Michael S. Virk, Kai-Ming Fu, Kevin T. Foley, Paul Park, Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, John J. Knightly, Mark E. Shaffrey, Eric A. Potts, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oren N. Gottfried, Khoi D. Than, Michael Y. Wang, Luis M. Tumialán, Dean Chou, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Mohamad Bydon, and Erica F. Bisson

OBJECTIVE

Patients who undergo surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) will occasionally develop postoperative neck pain that was not present preoperatively, yet the incidence of this phenomenon is unclear. The authors aimed to elucidate patient and surgical factors associated with new-onset sustained pain after CSM surgery.

METHODS

The authors reviewed data from the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM module. The presence of neck pain was defined using the neck pain numeric rating scale (NRS). Patients with no neck pain at baseline (neck NRS score ≤ 1) were then stratified based on the presence of new postoperative pain development (neck NRS score ≥ 2) at 12 and 24 months postoperatively.

RESULTS

Of 1141 patients in the CSM QOD, 224 (19.6%) reported no neck pain at baseline. Among 170 patients with no baseline neck pain and available 12-month follow-up, 46 (27.1%) reported new postoperative pain. Among 184 patients with no baseline neck pain and available 24-month follow-up, 53 (28.8%) reported new postoperative pain. The mean differences in neck NRS scores were 4.3 for those with new postoperative pain compared with those without at 12 months (4.4 ± 2.2 vs 0.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.001) and 3.9 at 24 months (4.1 ± 2.4 vs 0.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). The majority of patients reporting new-onset neck pain reported being satisfied with surgery, but their satisfaction was significantly lower compared with patients without pain at the 12-month (66.7% vs 94.3%, p < 0.001) and 24-month (65.4% vs 90.8%, p < 0.001) follow-ups. The baseline Neck Disability Index (NDI) was an independent predictor of new postoperative neck pain at both the 12-month and 24-month time points (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06; p = 0.002; and aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05; p = 0.026, respectively). The total number of levels treated was associated with new-onset neck pain at 12 months (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.64; p = 0.005), and duration of symptoms more than 3 months was a predictor of 24-month neck pain (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.01–10.22; p = 0.048).

CONCLUSIONS

Increased NDI at baseline, number of levels treated surgically, and duration of symptoms longer than 3 months preoperatively correlate positively with the risk of new-onset neck pain following CSM surgery. The majority of patients with new-onset neck pain still report satisfaction from surgery, suggesting that the risk of new-onset neck pain should not hinder indicated operations from being performed.

Restricted access

Nitin Agarwal, Alexander A. Aabedi, Andrew K. Chan, Vijay Letchuman, Saman Shabani, Erica F. Bisson, Mohamad Bydon, Steven D. Glassman, Kevin T. Foley, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Eric A. Potts, Mark E. Shaffrey, Domagoj Coric, John J. Knightly, Paul Park, Michael Y. Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Anthony L. Asher, Michael S. Virk, Regis W. Haid Jr., Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

Prior studies have revealed that a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 is associated with worse outcomes following surgical intervention in grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis. Using a machine learning approach, this study aimed to leverage the prospective Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) to identify a BMI threshold for patients undergoing surgical intervention for grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis and thus reliably identify optimal surgical candidates among obese patients.

METHODS

Patients with grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis and preoperative BMI ≥ 30 from the prospectively collected QOD lumbar spondylolisthesis module were included in this study. A 12-month composite outcome was generated by performing principal components analysis and k-means clustering on four validated measures of surgical outcomes in patients with spondylolisthesis. Random forests were generated to determine the most important preoperative patient characteristics in predicting the composite outcome. Recursive partitioning was used to extract a BMI threshold associated with optimal outcomes.

RESULTS

The average BMI was 35.7, with 282 (46.4%) of the 608 patients from the QOD data set having a BMI ≥ 30. Principal components analysis revealed that the first principal component accounted for 99.2% of the variance in the four outcome measures. Two clusters were identified corresponding to patients with suboptimal outcomes (severe back pain, increased disability, impaired quality of life, and low satisfaction) and to those with optimal outcomes. Recursive partitioning established a BMI threshold of 37.5 after pruning via cross-validation.

CONCLUSIONS

In this multicenter study, the authors found that a BMI ≤ 37.5 was associated with improved patient outcomes following surgical intervention. These findings may help augment predictive analytics to deliver precision medicine and improve prehabilitation strategies.

Restricted access

Juan Pablo Sardi, Bruno Lazaro, Justin S. Smith, Michael P. Kelly, Brian Dial, Jeffrey Hills, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Munish Gupta, Christine R. Baldus, Chun Po Yen, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Keith H. Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Previous reports of rod fracture (RF) in adult spinal deformity are limited by heterogeneous cohorts, low follow-up rates, and relatively short follow-up durations. Since the majority of RFs present > 2 years after surgery, true occurrence and revision rates remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to better understand the risk factors for RF and assess its occurrence and revision rates following primary thoracolumbar fusions to the sacrum/pelvis for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) in a prospective series with long-term follow-up.

METHODS

Patient records were obtained from the Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis–1 (ASLS-1) database, an NIH-sponsored multicenter, prospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients aged 40–80 years undergoing primary surgeries for ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society-22r ≤ 4.0 in pain, function, and/or self-image) with instrumented fusion of ≥ 7 levels that included the sacrum/pelvis. Patients with and without RF were compared to assess risk factors for RF and revision surgery.

RESULTS

Inclusion criteria were met by 160 patients (median age 62 years, IQR 55.7–67.9 years). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (IQR 3.8–6.6 years), there were 92 RFs in 62 patients (38.8%). The median time to RF was 3.0 years (IQR 1.9–4.54 years), and 73% occurred > 2 years following surgery. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Baseline radiographic, clinical, and demographic characteristics were similar between patients with and without RF. In Cox regression models, greater postoperative pelvic tilt (HR 1.895, 95% CI 1.196–3.002, p = 0.0065) and greater estimated blood loss (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.036, p = 0.0088) were associated with increased risk of RF. Thirty-eight patients (61% of all RFs) underwent revision surgery. Bilateral RF was predictive of revision surgery (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.8–6.9, p = 0.0002), while patients with unilateral nondisplaced RFs were less likely to require revision (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18–0.84, p = 0.016).

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides what is to the authors’ knowledge the highest-quality data to date on RF rates following ASLS surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 38.8% of patients had at least one RF. Estimated RF rates at 2, 4, 5, and 8 years after surgery were 11%, 24%, 35%, and 49%, respectively. Greater estimated blood loss and postoperative pelvic tilt were significant risk factors for RF. These findings emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up to realize the true prevalence and cumulative incidence of RF.

Restricted access

Andrew K. Chan, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oren N. Gottfried, Christine Park, Khoi D. Than, Erica F. Bisson, Mohamad Bydon, Anthony L. Asher, Domagoj Coric, Eric A. Potts, Kevin T. Foley, Michael Y. Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Michael S. Virk, John J. Knightly, Scott Meyer, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Mark E. Shaffrey, Avery L. Buchholz, Luis M. Tumialán, Jay D. Turner, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Brandon A. Sherrod, Nitin Agarwal, Dean Chou, Regis W. Haid Jr., and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine whether multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (PCLF) is superior for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and high preoperative neck pain.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data using the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM module. Patients who received a subaxial fusion of 3 or 4 segments and had a visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score of 7 or greater at baseline were included. The 3-, 12-, and 24-month outcomes were compared for patients undergoing ACDF with those undergoing PCLF.

RESULTS

Overall, 1141 patients with CSM were included in the database. Of these, 495 (43.4%) presented with severe neck pain (VAS score > 6). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, we compared 65 patients (54.6%) undergoing 3- and 4-level ACDF and 54 patients (45.4%) undergoing 3- and 4-level PCLF. Patients undergoing ACDF had worse Neck Disability Index scores at baseline (52.5 ± 15.9 vs 45.9 ± 16.8, p = 0.03) but similar neck pain (p > 0.05). Otherwise, the groups were well matched for the remaining baseline patient-reported outcomes. The rates of 24-month follow-up for ACDF and PCLF were similar (86.2% and 83.3%, respectively). At the 24-month follow-up, both groups demonstrated mean improvements in all outcomes, including neck pain (p < 0.05). In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the degree of neck pain change, rate of neck pain improvement, rate of pain-free achievement, and rate of reaching minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in neck pain between the two groups (adjusted p > 0.05). However, ACDF was associated with a higher 24-month modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA) score (β = 1.5 [95% CI 0.5–2.6], adjusted p = 0.01), higher EQ-5D score (β = 0.1 [95% CI 0.01–0.2], adjusted p = 0.04), and higher likelihood for return to baseline activities (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.1–1.4], adjusted p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

Severe neck pain is prevalent among patients undergoing surgery for CSM, affecting more than 40% of patients. Both ACDF and PCLF achieved comparable postoperative neck pain improvement 3, 12, and 24 months following 3- or 4-segment surgery for patients with CSM and severe neck pain. However, multilevel ACDF was associated with superior functional status, quality of life, and return to baseline activities at 24 months in multivariable adjusted analyses.

Restricted access

Wesley M. Durand, Alan H. Daniels, Kevin DiSilvestro, Renaud Lafage, Bassel G. Diebo, Peter G. Passias, Han Jo Kim, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Virginie Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Munish C. Gupta, Eric O. Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Jeffrey L. Gum, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Robert K. Eastlack, Khaled Kebaish, Alex Soroceanu, Richard A. Hostin, Douglas Burton, Shay Bess, Christopher P. Ames, Robert A. Hart, D. Kojo Hamilton, and

OBJECTIVE

Revision surgery is often necessary for adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. Satisfaction with management is an important component of health-related quality of life. The authors hypothesized that patients who underwent multiple revision surgeries following ASD correction would exhibit lower self-reported satisfaction scores.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study of 668 patients who underwent ASD surgery and were eligible for a minimum 2-year follow-up. Visits were stratified by occurrence prior to the index surgery (period 0), after the index surgery only (period 1), after the first revision only (period 2), and after the second revision only (period 3). Patients were further stratified by prior spine surgery before their index surgery. Scoliosis Research Society–22 (SRS-22r) health-related quality-of-life satisfaction subscore and total satisfaction scores were evaluated at all periods using multiple linear regression and adjustment for age, sex, and Charlson Comorbidity Index.

RESULTS

In total, 46.6% of the study patients had undergone prior spine surgery before their index surgery. The overall revision rate was 21.3%. Among patients with no spine surgery prior to the index surgery, SRS-22r satisfaction scores increased from period 0 to 1 (from 2.8 to 4.3, p < 0.0001), decreased after one revision from period 1 to 2 (4.3 to 3.9, p = 0.0004), and decreased further after a second revision from period 2 to 3 (3.9 to 3.3, p = 0.0437). Among patients with spine surgery prior to the index procedure, SRS-22r satisfaction increased from period 0 to 1 (2.8 to 4.2, p < 0.0001) and decreased from period 1 to 2 (4.2 to 3.8, p = 0.0011). No differences in follow-up time from last surgery were observed (all p > 0.3). Among patients with multiple revisions, 40% experienced rod fracture, 40% proximal junctional kyphosis, and 33% pseudarthrosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients undergoing ASD surgery, revision surgery is associated with decreased satisfaction, and multiple revisions are associated with additive detriment to satisfaction among patients initially undergoing primary surgery. These findings have direct implications for preoperative patient counseling and establishment of postoperative expectations.

Restricted access

Elias Elias, Shay Bess, Breton G. Line, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Peter Passias, Zeina Nasser, Jeffrey L. Gum, Khaled Kebaish, Robert Eastlack, Alan H. Daniels, Gregory Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, D. Kojo Hamilton, Michael P. Kelly, Munish Gupta, Robert Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Douglas Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, and

OBJECTIVE

Adult cervical deformity (ACD) has high complication rates due to surgical complexity and patient frailty. Very few studies have focused on longer-term outcomes of operative ACD treatment. The objective of this study was to assess minimum 2-year outcomes and complications of ACD surgery.

METHODS

A multicenter, prospective observational study was performed at 13 centers across the United States to evaluate surgical outcomes for ACD. Demographics, complications, radiographic parameters, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D], and numeric rating scale [NRS] for neck and back pain) were evaluated, and analyses focused on patients with ≥ 2-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of 169 patients with ACD who were eligible for the study, 102 (60.4%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.4 years, range 2–8.1 years). The mean age at surgery was 62 years (SD 11 years). Surgical approaches included anterior-only (22.8%), posterior-only (39.6%), and combined (37.6%). PROMs significantly improved from baseline to last follow-up, including Neck Disability Index (from 47.3 to 33.0) and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (from 12.0 to 12.8; for patients with baseline score ≤ 14), neck pain NRS (from 6.8 to 3.8), back pain NRS (from 5.5 to 4.8), EQ-5D score (from 0.74 to 0.78), and EQ-5D visual analog scale score (from 59.5 to 66.6) (all p ≤ 0.04). More than half of the patients (n = 58, 56.9%) had at least one complication, with the most common complications including dysphagia, distal junctional kyphosis, instrumentation failure, and cardiopulmonary events. The patients who did not achieve 2-year follow-up (n = 67) were similar to study patients based on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and PROMs. Over the course of follow-up, 23 of the total 169 enrolled patients were reported to have died. Notably, these represent all-cause mortalities during the course of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This multicenter, prospective analysis demonstrates that operative treatment for ACD provides significant improvement of health-related quality of life at a mean 3.4-year follow-up, despite high complication rates and a high rate of all-cause mortality that is reflective of the overall frailty of this patient population. To the authors’ knowledge, this study represents the largest and most comprehensive prospective effort to date designed to assess the intermediate-term outcomes and complications of operative treatment for ACD.

Open access

Ethan S. Srinivasan, Timothy Y. Wang, Anna Rapoport, Melissa M. Erickson, Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Khoi D. Than

In this video, the authors highlight the operative treatment of a 55-year-old man with chronic osteomyelitis discitis. The operation entailed a minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach for L3 and L4 corpectomies, L2–5 interbody fusion, and L2–5 minimally invasive posterior instrumentation. The operation proceeded in two stages, beginning in the lateral position with corpectomy of the L3 and L4 vertebral bodies and placement of a corpectomy cage. After closure of this access wound, the patient was turned to a prone position for the posterior element of the operation. Posterior instrumentation was placed with pedicle screws at L2 and L5.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.3.FOCVID2210

Restricted access

Ethan S. Srinivasan, Melissa M. Erickson, Christopher I. Shaffrey, and Khoi D. Than

Dr. Ruth Jackson, born in 1902, was the first female spine surgeon on record. Her story of remarkable resilience and sacrifice is even more relevant given the stark gender disparities in orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery that remain today. Dr. Jackson entered the field during the Great Depression and overcame significant barriers at each step along the process. In 1937, she became the first woman to pass the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery examination and join the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons as a full member. Her work in the cervical spine led to a notable lecture record and the publication of several articles, as well as a book, The Cervical Syndrome, in which she discussed the anatomy, etiology, and treatment of cervical pathologies. Additionally, Dr. Jackson developed the Jackson CerviPillo, a neck support that is still in use today. She left a legacy that continues to resonate through the work of the Ruth Jackson Orthopedic Society, which supports women at all levels of practice and training. From the story of Dr. Jackson’s life, we can appreciate her single-minded determination that blazed a path for women in spine surgery, as well as consider the progress that remains to be made.

Restricted access

Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Alex Moy Fong, Basel Sheikh Alshabab, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Eric O. Klineberg, Gregory Mundis Jr., Peter G. Passias, Munish Gupta, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Christopher P. Ames, Virginie Lafage, and

OBJECTIVE

Hyperextension of C0–2 is a debilitating compensatory mechanism used to maintain horizontal gaze, analogous to high pelvic tilt in the lumbopelvic complex to maintain an upright posture. This study aims to investigate the impact of cervical deformity (CD) correction on this hyperextension. The authors hypothesize that correction of cervical sagittal malalignment allows for relaxation of C0–2 hyperextension and improved clinical outcomes.

METHODS

A retrospective review was conducted of a multicenter database of patients with CD undergoing spinal realignment and fusion caudal to C2 and cephalad to the pelvis. Range of motion (ROM) and reserve of extension (ROE) were calculated across C2–7 and C0–2. The association between C2–7 correction and change in C0–2 ROE was investigated while controlling for horizontal gaze, followed by stratification into ΔC2–7 percentiles.

RESULTS

Sixty-five patients were included (mean age 61.8 ± 9.6 years, 68% female). At baseline, patients had cervical kyphosis (C2–7, −11.7° ± 18.2°; T1 slope–cervical lordosis mismatch, 38.6° ± 18.6°), negative global alignment (sagittal vertical axis [SVA] −12.8 ± 71.2 mm), and hyperlordosis at C0–2 (mean 33.2° ± 11.8°). The mean ROM was 25.7° ± 17.7° and 21.3° ± 9.9° at C2–7 and C0–2, respectively, with an ROE of approximately 9° for each segment. Limited C0–2 ROM and ROE correlated with the Neck Disability Index (r = −0.371 and −0.394, p < 0.01). The mean number of levels fused was 7.0 ± 3.1 (24.6% anterior, 43.1% posterior), with 87.7% undergoing at least an osteotomy. At 1 year, mean C2–7 increased to 5.5° ± 13.4°, SVA became neutral (11.5 ± 54.8 mm), C0–2 hyperlordosis decreased to 27.8° ± 11.7°, and thoracic kyphosis (TK) increased to −49.4° ± 18.1° (all p < 0.001). Concurrently, mean C0–2 ROM increased to 27.6° ± 8.1° and C2–7 ROM decreased significantly to 9.0° ± 12.3° without a change in ROE. Controlling for horizontal gaze, change in C2–7 lordosis significantly correlated with increased TK (r = −0.617, p < 0.001), decreased C0–2 (r = −0.747, p < 0.001), and increased C0–2 ROE (r = 0.550, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

CD correction can significantly impact cephalad and caudal compensation in the upper cervical and thoracic spine. Restoration of cervical alignment resulted in increased C0–2 ROE and TK and was also associated with improved clinical outcome.