The aim of this study was to determine if the distinction between planum sphenoidale (PS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas is clinically meaningful and impacts the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA).
A consecutive series of patients who were 18 years of age or older and underwent EEA for newly diagnosed grade I PS meningiomas (PSMs) and TS meningiomas (TSMs) between October 2007 and May 2021 were included. The PS and TS were distinguished by drawing a line passing through the center of the TS and perpendicular to the PS on postcontrast T1-weighted MRI. Probabilistic heatmaps were created to display the actual distribution of tumor volumes. Tumor volume, extent of resection (EOR), visual outcome, and complications were assessed.
The 47 tumors were distributed in a smooth continuum. Using an arbitrary definition, 24 (51%) were PSMs and 23 (49%) were TSMs. The mean volume of PSMs was 5.6 cm3 compared with 4.5 cm3 for TSMs. Canal invasion was present in 87.5% of PSMs and 52% of TSMs. GTR was achieved in 38 (84%) of 45 cases in which it was the goal, slightly less frequently for PSMs (78%) compared with TSMs (91%), although the difference was not significant. Th mean EOR was 99% ± 2% for PSMs and 98% ± 11% for TSMs. Neither the suprasellar notch angle nor the percentage of tumor above the PS impacted the rate of GTR. After a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range 0.1–131 months), there were 2 (5%) recurrences after GTR (n = 38) both of which occurred in patients with PSMs. Forty-two (89%) patients presented with preoperative impaired vision. Postoperative vision was stable or improved in 96% of patients with PSMs and 91% of patients with TSMs. CSF leakage occurred in 4 (16.6%) patients with a PSM, which resolved with only lumbar drainage, and in 1 (4.3%) patient with a TSM, which required reoperation.
PSM and TSMs arise in a smooth distribution, making the distinction arbitrary. Those classified as PSMs were larger and more likely to invade the optic canals. Surgical outcome for both locations was similar, slightly favoring TSMs. The arbitrary distinction between PSMs and TSMs is less useful at predicting outcome than the lateral extent of the tumor, regardless of the site of origin.