Pituitary adenomas are well suited to resection by a minimal-access endoscopic technique. Validation of this approach requires prospective outcome studies to determine the impact on quality of life (QOL). This study aims to assess the effect of endoscopic pituitary adenoma resection on site-specific and sinonasal-related QOL before and after endoscopic surgery using validated instruments.
Consecutive adult patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal resection of pituitary adenoma were prospectively enrolled from a single tertiary care center. All patients completed the Anterior Skull Base Questionnaire (ASBQ) and the 22-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) preoperatively and then at regular intervals after surgery to assess their perceived QOL with regard to hormonal, surgical, and anatomical factors.
Eighty-one of 114 patients were eligible for study; median follow-up was 16 months. This cohort included 24 (29.6%) nonsecreting macroadenomas and 57 (70.4%) hypersecreting tumors. There was significant improvement in the mean ASBQ score at 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery (p < 0.05), while postoperative SNOT-22 scores, at the same time points, showed no significant difference from preoperative scores. Both ASBQ and SNOT-22 scores showed transient worsening at 3 weeks postoperatively. Subtotal resection correlated with worse QOL, both overall and among patients with hypersecreting tumors (p < 0.05). Extrasellar tumor extension, intraoperative CSF leakage, and a reconstruction technique during surgery did not impact postoperative QOL. Visual disturbances did not significantly alter QOL. There were no postoperative CSF leaks in this series.
Endoscopic resection of pituitary adenoma is associated with long-term improvements in site-specific QOL and stability in sinonasal QOL when assessed pre- and postoperatively with validated instruments. Subtotal resection was the only factor that negatively impacted postoperative QOL. Therefore, gross-total resection should be attempted for all patients to optimize QOL after surgery.