Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 123 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Schwartz, Theodore H. x
Clear All
Restricted access

Saniya S. Godil, Umberto Tosi, Mina Gerges, Andrew L. A. Garton, Georgiana A. Dobri, Ashutosh Kacker, Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas (CPAs) is challenging. Controversy exists regarding the optimal goals of surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent gross-total resection with the outcomes of those who underwent subtotal resection of their CPA via an endoscopic endonasal approach.

METHODS

From a prospectively maintained database of all endoscopic endonasal approaches performed at Weill Cornell Medicine, only patients with CPAs with > 3 years of follow-up after surgery were included. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression. Data were collected on baseline demographics, imaging, endocrine function, visual function, and extent of resection.

RESULTS

A total of 44 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 2.6 years were included. Of these patients, 14 (31.8%) had prior surgery. GTR was achieved in 77.3% (34/44) of all patients and 89.5% (34/38) of patients in whom it was the goal of surgery. Preoperative tumor volume < 10 cm3 was highly predictive of GTR (p < 0.001). Radiation therapy was administered within the first 3 months after surgery in 1 (2.9%) of 34 patients with GTR and 7 (70%) of 10 patients with STR (p < 0.001). The 5-year recurrence-free/progression-free survival rate was 75.0% after GTR and 25.0% after STR (45% in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). The time to recurrence after GTR was 30.2 months versus 13 months after STR (5.8 months in subgroup with STR plus radiotherapy; p < 0.001). Patients with GTR had a lower rate of visual deterioration and higher rate of return to work or school compared with those with STR (p = 0.02). Patients with GTR compared to STR had a lower rate of CSF leakage (0.0% vs 30%, p = 0.001) but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus (85.3% vs 50%, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

GTR, which is possible to achieve in smaller tumors, resulted in improved tumor control, better visual outcome, and better functional recovery but a higher rate of diabetes insipidus compared with STR, even when the latter was supplemented with postoperative radiation therapy. GTR should be the goal of craniopharyngioma surgery, when achievable with minimal morbidity.

Restricted access

Joseph A. Carnevale, Christopher S. Babu, Jacob L. Goldberg, Reginald Fong, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Visual deterioration after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for sellar and parasellar masses is a rare but serious complication caused by either compressive or ischemic mechanisms. Timely diagnosis and intervention may restore vision if instituted appropriately. The associated risk factors and their relation to the success of intervention are not well understood.

METHODS

The authors examined a series of 1200 consecutive EETS cases performed by the senior author at Weill Cornell/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital from 2010 to 2020. Cases with postoperative visual deterioration were identified. Pre- and postoperative clinical data, mechanism of visual decline, latency to intervention, and long-term visual outcome were retrospectively collected and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods.

RESULTS

Twenty-one patients (1.75%) complained of early postoperative visual deterioration. The most common pathology associated with postoperative visual loss was craniopharyngioma (7.69%), followed by meningioma (5.43%) and then pituitary adenoma (1.94%). Timely intervention restored vision in 81% of patients for a 0.33% rate of permanent visual deterioration. Average time to visual deterioration was 28.8 hours, and over 70% of patients experienced vision loss within the first 13 hours. Compressive etiology (n = 11), consisting of either hematoma (n = 8) or graft displacement (n = 3), occurred 7.3 hours and 70.3 hours after surgery, respectively, and was more common in adenomas. Acute postoperative visual deterioration was more common in firm closures (4.78%) compared with soft closures (1.03%; p = 0.0006). Ischemic etiology (n = 10) occurred 10.3 hours after surgery and was more common with craniopharyngiomas and meningiomas (p = 0.08). Sixteen patients (76.2%) underwent early reoperation to explore and decompress the optic apparatus. Vision was restored to baseline after reoperation in all 11 compressive cases, whereas 6/10 ischemic cases improved with supplemental oxygen and hypervolemic hypertensive therapy (p = 0.02). Fluid expansion from 8 to 16 hours (p = 0.034) and systolic blood pressure elevation from 32 to 48 hours (p = 0.05) after surgery were significantly higher in those ischemic patients who recovered some vision compared with those with persistent visual deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

Visual deterioration after EETS is a rare event but can be effectively treated if acted upon appropriately and in a timely fashion. Compressive etiology is reversible with early reoperation. Ischemic etiology can be successfully treated in roughly half of cases with supplemental oxygen and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy but may result in permanent visual deterioration if not instituted appropriately or if delayed with unnecessary exploratory surgery.

Restricted access

Diana A. Roth O’Brien, Sydney M. Kaye, Phillip J. Poppas, Sean S. Mahase, Anjile An, Paul J. Christos, Benjamin Liechty, David Pisapia, Rohan Ramakrishna, AG Wernicke, Jonathan P. S. Knisely, Susan C. Pannullo, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Publications on adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are largely limited to patients completing SRS within a specified time frame. The authors assessed real-world local recurrence (LR) for all brain metastasis (BM) patients referred for SRS and identified predictors of SRS timing.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified BM patients undergoing resection and referred for SRS between 2012 and 2018. Patients were categorized by time to SRS, as follows: 1) ≤ 4 weeks, 2) > 4–8 weeks, 3) > 8 weeks, and 4) never completed. The relationships between timing of SRS and LR, LR-free survival (LRFS), and survival were investigated, as well as predictors of and reasons for specific SRS timing.

RESULTS

In a cohort of 159 patients, the median age at resection was 64.0 years, 56.5% of patients were female, and 57.2% were in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class II. The median preoperative tumor diameter was 2.9 cm, and gross-total resection was achieved in 83.0% of patients. All patients were referred for SRS, but 20 (12.6%) did not receive it. The LR rate was 22.6%, and the time to SRS was correlated with the LR rate: 2.3% for patients receiving SRS at ≤ 4 weeks postoperatively, 14.5% for SRS at > 4–8 weeks (p = 0.03), and 48.5% for SRS at > 8 weeks (p < 0.001). No LR difference was seen between patients whose SRS was delayed by > 8 weeks and those who never completed SRS (48.5% vs 50.0%; p = 0.91). A similar relationship emerged between time to SRS and LRFS (p < 0.01). Non–small cell lung cancer pathology (p = 0.04), earlier year of treatment (p < 0.01), and interval from brain MRI to SRS (p < 0.01) were associated with longer intervals to SRS. The rates of receipt of systemic therapy also differed significantly between patients by category of time to SRS (p = 0.02). The most common reasons for intervals of > 4–8 weeks were logistic, whereas longer delays or no SRS were caused by management of systemic disease or comorbidities.

CONCLUSIONS

Available data on LR rates after adjuvant SRS are often obtained from carefully preselected patients receiving timely treatment, whereas significantly less information is available on the efficacy of adjuvant SRS in patients treated under “real-world” conditions. Management of these patients may merit reconsideration, particularly when SRS is not delivered within ≤ 4 weeks of resection. The results of this study indicate that a substantial number of patients referred for SRS either never receive it or are treated > 8 weeks postoperatively, at which time the SRS-treated patients have an LR risk equivalent to that of patients who never received SRS. Increased attention to the reasons for prolonged intervals from surgery to SRS and strategies for reducing them is needed to optimize treatment. For patients likely to experience delays, other radiotherapy techniques may be considered.

Restricted access

Mark Lee, Hazel T. Rivera-Rosario, Matthew H. Kim, Gregory P. Bewley, Jane Wang, Zellman Warhaft, Bradley Stylman, Angela I. Park, Aoife MacMahon, Ashutosh Kacker, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

The authors developed a negative-pressure, patient face-mounted antechamber and tested its efficacy as a tool for sequestering aerated particles and improving the safety of endonasal surgical procedures.

METHODS

Antechamber prototyping was performed with 3D printing and silicone-elastomer molding. The lowest vacuum settings needed to meet specifications for class I biosafety cabinets (flow rate ≥ 0.38 m/sec) were determined using an anemometer. A cross-validation approach with two different techniques, optical particle sizing and high-speed videography/shadowgraphy, was used to identify the minimum pressures required to sequester aerosolized materials. At the minimum vacuum settings identified, physical parameters were quantified, including flow rate, antechamber pressure, and time to clearance.

RESULTS

The minimum tube pressures needed to meet specifications for class I biosafety cabinets were −1.0 and −14.5 mm Hg for the surgical chambers with (“closed face”) and without (“open face”) the silicone diaphragm covering the operative port, respectively. Optical particle sizing did not detect aerosol generation from surgical drilling at these vacuum settings; however, videography estimated higher thresholds required to contain aerosols, at −6 and −35 mm Hg. Simulation of surgical movement disrupted aerosol containment visualized by shadowgraphy in the open-faced but not the closed-faced version of the mask; however, the closed-face version of the mask required increased negative pressure (−15 mm Hg) to contain aerosols during surgical simulation.

CONCLUSIONS

Portable, negative-pressure surgical compartments can contain aerosols from surgical drilling with pressures attainable by standard hospital and clinic vacuums. Future studies are needed to carefully consider the reliability of different techniques for detecting aerosols.

Free access

Theodore H. Schwartz and Michael W. McDermott

Free access

Theodore H. Schwartz and Michael W. McDermott

Restricted access

Benjamin I. Rapoport, Michael W. McDermott, and Theodore H. Schwartz

Restricted access

Benjamin I. Rapoport, Michael W. McDermott, and Theodore H. Schwartz

Open access

Michelle Roytman, Andrew B. Tassler, Ashutosh Kacker, Theodore H. Schwartz, Georgiana A. Dobri, Sara B. Strauss, Alyssa M. Capalbo, Rajiv S. Magge, Marissa Barbaro, Eaton Lin, Joseph R. Osborne, and Jana Ivanidze

BACKGROUND

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare sinonasal neuroectodermal malignancy with a slow onset of symptoms, favorable 5-year survival, and a propensity for delayed locoregional recurrence. Current treatment options include resection, adjuvant radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy; however, because of its rarity and location, determining the optimal treatment for ENB has been challenging.

OBSERVATIONS

ENBs strongly express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), particularly SSTR2, providing a molecular target for imaging and therapy.

LESSONs

The authors present a case series of ENBs imaged with [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI and PET/CT and discuss the emerging role of [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET for ENB diagnosis, staging, and treatment response monitoring.

Restricted access

Alexander Micko, Benjamin I. Rapoport, Brett E. Youngerman, Reginald P. Fong, Jennifer Kosty, Andrew Brunswick, Shane Shahrestani, Gabriel Zada, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Incomplete resection of skull base pathology may result in local tumor recurrence. This study investigates the utility of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence during endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) to increase visibility of pathologic tissue.

METHODS

This retrospective multicenter series comprises patients with planned resection of an anterior skull base lesion who received preoperative 5-ALA at two tertiary care centers. Diagnostic use of a blue light endoscope was performed during EEA for all cases. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as fluorescence status, quality, and homogeneity were assessed for each skull base pathology.

RESULTS

Twenty-eight skull base pathologies underwent blue-light EEA with preoperative 5-ALA, including 15 pituitary adenomas (54%), 4 meningiomas (14%), 3 craniopharyngiomas (11%), 2 Rathke’s cleft cysts (7%), as well as plasmacytoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, and sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. Of these, 6 (21%) of 28 showed invasive growth into surrounding structures such as dura, bone, or compartments of the cavernous sinus. Tumor fluorescence was detected in 2 cases (7%), with strong fluorescence in 1 tuberculum sellae meningioma and vague fluorescence in 1 pituicytoma. In all other cases fluorescence was absent. Faint fluorescence of the normal pituitary gland was seen in 1 (7%) of 15 cases. A comparison between the particular tumor entities as well as a correlation between invasiveness, WHO grade, Ki-67, and positive fluorescence did not show any significant association.

CONCLUSIONS

With the possible exception of meningiomas, 5-ALA fluorescence has limited utility in the majority of endonasal skull base surgeries, although other pathology may be worth investigating.