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Comparing posterior cervical foraminotomy with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in radiculopathic patients: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database

Praveen V. Mummaneni, Erica F. Bisson, Giorgos Michalopoulos, William J. Mualem, Sally El Sammak, Michael Y. Wang, Andrew K. Chan, Regis W. Haid, John J. Knightly, Dean Chou, Brandon A. Sherrod, Oren N. Gottfried, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Jacob L. Goldberg, Michael S. Virk, Ibrahim Hussain, Nitin Agarwal, Steven D. Glassman, Mark E. Shaffrey, Paul Park, Kevin T. Foley, Brenton Pennicooke, Domagoj Coric, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Eric A. Potts, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Anthony L. Asher, and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to compare clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between posterior foraminotomy and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients presenting with cervical radiculopathy.

METHODS

The Quality Outcomes Database was queried for patients who had undergone ACDF or posterior foraminotomy for radiculopathy. To create two highly homogeneous groups, optimal individual matching was performed at a 5:1 ratio between the two groups on 29 baseline variables (including demographic characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, patient-reported scores, underlying pathologies, and levels treated). Outcomes of interest were length of stay, reoperations, patient-reported satisfaction, increase in EQ-5D score, and decrease in Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores for arm and neck pain as long as 1 year after surgery. Noninferiority analysis of achieving patient satisfaction and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in PROs was performed with an accepted risk difference of 5%.

RESULTS

A total of 7805 eligible patients were identified: 216 of these underwent posterior foraminotomy and were matched to 1080 patients who underwent ACDF. The patients who underwent ACDF had more underlying pathologies, lower EQ-5D scores, and higher NDI and neck pain scores at baseline. Posterior foraminotomy was associated with shorter hospitalization (0.5 vs 0.9 days, p < 0.001). Reoperations within 12 months were significantly more common among the posterior foraminotomy group (4.2% vs 1.9%, p = 0.04). The two groups performed similarly in PROs, with posterior foraminotomy being noninferior to ACDF in achieving MCID in EQ-5D and neck pain scores but also having lower rates of maximal satisfaction at 12 months (North American Spine Society score of 1 achieved by 65.2% posterior foraminotomy patients vs 74.6% of ACDF patients, p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

The two procedures were found to be offered to different populations, with ACDF being selected for patients with more complicated pathologies and symptoms. After individual matching, posterior foraminotomy was associated with a higher reoperation risk within 1 year after surgery compared to ACDF (4.2% vs 1.9%). In terms of 12-month PROs, posterior foraminotomy was noninferior to ACDF in improving quality of life and neck pain. The two procedures also performed similarly in improving NDI scores and arm pain, but ACDF patients had higher maximal satisfaction rates.

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Development and validation of an artificial intelligence model to accurately predict spinopelvic parameters

Edward S. Harake, Joseph R. Linzey, Cheng Jiang, Rushikesh S. Joshi, Mark M. Zaki, Jaes C. Jones, Siri Sahib S. Khalsa, John H. Lee, Zachary Wilseck, Jacob R. Joseph, Todd C. Hollon, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Achieving appropriate spinopelvic alignment has been shown to be associated with improved clinical symptoms. However, measurement of spinopelvic radiographic parameters is time-intensive and interobserver reliability is a concern. Automated measurement tools have the promise of rapid and consistent measurements, but existing tools are still limited to some degree by manual user-entry requirements. This study presents a novel artificial intelligence (AI) tool called SpinePose that automatically predicts spinopelvic parameters with high accuracy without the need for manual entry.

METHODS

SpinePose was trained and validated on 761 sagittal whole-spine radiographs to predict the sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), and L1 pelvic angle (L1PA). A separate test set of 40 radiographs was labeled by four reviewers, including fellowship-trained spine surgeons and a fellowship-trained radiologist with neuroradiology subspecialty certification. Median errors relative to the most senior reviewer were calculated to determine model accuracy on test images. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess interrater reliability.

RESULTS

SpinePose exhibited the following median (interquartile range) parameter errors: SVA 2.2 mm (2.3 mm) (p = 0.93), PT 1.3° (1.2°) (p = 0.48), SS 1.7° (2.2°) (p = 0.64), PI 2.2° (2.1°) (p = 0.24), LL 2.6° (4.0°) (p = 0.89), T1PA 1.1° (0.9°) (p = 0.42), and L1PA 1.4° (1.6°) (p = 0.49). Model predictions also exhibited excellent reliability at all parameters (ICC 0.91–1.0).

CONCLUSIONS

SpinePose accurately predicted spinopelvic parameters with excellent reliability comparable to that of fellowship-trained spine surgeons and neuroradiologists. Utilization of predictive AI tools in spinal imaging can substantially aid in patient selection and surgical planning.

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The impact of anxiety and depression on lumbar spine surgical outcomes: a Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative study

Nachiket Deshpande, Moustafa Hadi, Tarek R. Mansour, Edvin Telemi, Travis Hamilton, Jianhui Hu, Lonni Schultz, David R. Nerenz, Jad G. Khalil, Richard Easton, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, Ilyas Aleem, Paul Park, Teck Soo, Doris Tong, Muwaffak Abdulhak, Jason M. Schwalb, and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

The presence of depression and anxiety has been associated with negative outcomes in spine surgery patients. While it seems evident that a history of depression or anxiety can negatively influence outcome, the exact additive effect of both has not been extensively studied in a multicenter trial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a patient’s history of anxiety and depression and their patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after lumbar surgery.

METHODS

Patients in the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative registry undergoing lumbar spine surgery between July 2016 and December 2021 were grouped into four cohorts: those with a history of anxiety only, those with a history of depression only, those with both, and those with neither. Primary outcomes were achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Function 4-item Short Form (PROMIS PF), EQ-5D, and numeric rating scale (NRS) back pain and leg pain, and North American Spine Society patient satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included surgical site infection, hospital readmission, and return to the operating room. Multivariate Poisson generalized estimating equation models were used to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from patient baseline variables.

RESULTS

Of the 45,565 patients identified, 3941 reported a history of anxiety, 5017 reported a history of depression, 9570 reported both, and 27,037 reported neither. Compared with those who reported having neither, patients with both anxiety and depression had lower patient satisfaction at 90 days (p = 0.002) and 1 year (p = 0.021); PROMIS PF MCID at 90 days (p < 0.001), 1 year (p < 0.001), and 2 years (p = 0.006); EQ-5D MCID at 90 days (p < 0.001), 1 year (p < 0.001), and 2 years (p < 0.001); NRS back pain MCID at 90 days (p < 0.001) and 1 year (p < 0.001); and NRS leg pain MCID at 90 days (p < 0.001), 1 year (p = 0.024), and 2 years (p = 0.027). Patients with anxiety only (p < 0.001), depression only (p < 0.001), or both (p < 0.001) were more likely to be readmitted within 90 days. Additionally, patients with anxiety only (p = 0.015) and both anxiety and depression (p = 0.015) had higher rates of surgical site infection. Patients with anxiety only (p = 0.006) and depression only (p = 0.021) also had higher rates of return to the operating room.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors observed an association between a history of anxiety and depression and negative outcome after lumbar spine surgery. In addition, they found an additive effect of a history of both anxiety and depression with an increased risk of negative outcome when compared with either anxiety or depression alone.

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Risk factors of emergency department visits following elective cervical and lumbar surgical procedures: a multi-institution analysis from the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative

Oludotun Ogunsola, Joseph R. Linzey, Mark M. Zaki, Victor Chang, Lonni R. Schultz, Kylie Springer, Muwaffak Abdulhak, Jad G. Khalil, Jason M. Schwalb, Ilyas Aleem, David R. Nerenz, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, Richard Easton, Teck M. Soo, Doris Tong, and Paul Park

OBJECTIVE

Emergency department visits 90 days after elective spinal surgery are relatively common, with rates ranging from 9% to 29%. Emergency visits are very costly, so their reduction is of importance. This study’s objective was to evaluate the reasons for emergency department visits and determine potentially modifiable risk factors.

METHODS

This study retrospectively reviewed data queried from the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) registry from July 2020 to November 2021. MSSIC is a multicenter (28-hospital) registry of patients undergoing cervical and lumbar degenerative spinal surgery. Adult patients treated for elective cervical and/or lumbar spine surgery for degenerative pathology (spondylosis, intervertebral disc disease, low-grade spondylolisthesis) were included. Emergency department visits within 90 days of surgery (outcome measure) were analyzed utilizing univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of 16,224 patients, 2024 (12.5%) presented to the emergency department during the study period, most commonly for pain related to spinal surgery (31.5%), abdominal problems (15.8%), and pain unrelated to the spinal surgery (12.8%). On multivariate analysis, age (per 5-year increase) (relative risk [RR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.92–0.95), college education (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69–0.96), private insurance (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70–0.89), and preoperative ambulation status (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79–0.97) were associated with decreased emergency visits. Conversely, Black race (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13–1.51), current diabetes (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.26), history of deep venous thromboembolism (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.16–1.43), history of depression (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.25), history of anxiety (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19–1.46), history of osteoporosis (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.34), history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), American Society of Anesthesiologists class > II (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.29), and length of stay > 3 days (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16–1.44) were associated with increased emergency visits.

CONCLUSIONS

The most common reasons for emergency department visits were surgical pain, abdominal dysfunction, and pain unrelated to index spinal surgery. Increased focus on postoperative pain management and bowel regimen can potentially reduce emergency visits. The risks of diabetes, history of osteoporosis, depression, and anxiety are areas for additional preoperative screening.

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Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and driving abilities: defining the prevalence and long-term postoperative outcomes using the Quality Outcomes Database

Nitin Agarwal, Sarah E. Johnson, Mohamad Bydon, Erica F. Bisson, Andrew K. Chan, Saman Shabani, Vijay Letchuman, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Daniel C. Lu, Michael Y. Wang, Raj Swaroop Lavadi, Regis W. Haid, John J. Knightly, Brandon A. Sherrod, Oren N. Gottfried, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Jacob L. Goldberg, Michael S. Virk, Ibrahim Hussain, Steven D. Glassman, Mark E. Shaffrey, Paul Park, Kevin T. Foley, Brenton Pennicooke, Domagoj Coric, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Eric A. Potts, Luis M. Tumialán, Dean Chou, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Anthony L. Asher, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) can cause significant difficulty with driving and a subsequent reduction in an individual’s quality of life due to neurological deterioration. The positive impact of surgery on postoperative patient-reported driving capabilities has been seldom explored.

METHODS

The CSM module of the Quality Outcomes Database was utilized. Patient-reported driving ability was assessed via the driving section of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire. This is an ordinal scale in which 0 represents the absence of symptoms while driving and 5 represents a complete inability to drive due to symptoms. Patients were considered to have an impairment in their driving ability if they reported an NDI driving score of 3 or higher (signifying impairment in driving duration due to symptoms). Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate mediators of baseline impairment and improvement at 24 months after surgery, which was defined as an NDI driving score < 3.

RESULTS

A total of 1128 patients who underwent surgical intervention for CSM were included, of whom 354 (31.4%) had baseline driving impairment due to CSM. Moderate (OR 2.3) and severe (OR 6.3) neck pain, severe arm pain (OR 1.6), mild-moderate (OR 2.1) and severe (OR 2.5) impairment in hand/arm dexterity, severe impairment in leg use/walking (OR 1.9), and severe impairment of urinary function (OR 1.8) were associated with impaired driving ability at baseline. Of the 291 patients with baseline impairment and available 24-month follow-up data, 209 (71.8%) reported postoperative improvement in their driving ability. This improvement seemed to be mediated particularly through the achievement of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in neck pain and improvement in leg function/walking. Patients with improved driving at 24 months noted higher postoperative satisfaction (88.5% vs 62.2%, p < 0.01) and were more likely to achieve a clinically significant improvement in their quality of life (50.7% vs 37.8%, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Nearly one-third of patients with CSM report impaired driving ability at presentation. Seventy-two percent of these patients reported improvements in their driving ability within 24 months of surgery. Surgical management of CSM can significantly improve patients’ driving abilities at 24 months and hence patients’ quality of life.

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What is the effect of preoperative depression on outcomes after minimally invasive surgery for adult spinal deformity? A prospective cohort analysis

Nitin Agarwal, Vijay Letchuman, Raj Swaroop Lavadi, Vivian P. Le, Alexander A. Aabedi, Saman Shabani, Andrew K. Chan, Paul Park, Juan S. Uribe, Jay D. Turner, Robert K. Eastlack, Richard G. Fessler, Kai-Ming Fu, Michael Y. Wang, Adam S. Kanter, David O. Okonkwo, Pierce D. Nunley, Neel Anand, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Peter G. Passias, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Dean Chou, and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

Depression has been implicated with worse immediate postoperative outcomes in adult spinal deformity (ASD) correction, yet the specific impact of depression on those patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires further clarity. This study aimed to evaluate the role of depression in the recovery of patients with ASD after undergoing MIS.

METHODS

Patients who underwent MIS for ASD with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year were included from a prospectively collected, multicenter registry. Two cohorts of patients were identified that consisted of either those affirming or denying depression on preoperative assessment. The patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) compared included scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain, Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22), SF-36 physical component summary, SF-36 mental component summary (MCS), EQ-5D, and EQ-5D visual analog scale.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven of 147 (18.4%) patients screened positive for preoperative depression. The nondepressed cohort had an average of 4.83 levels fused, and the depressed cohort had 5.56 levels fused per patient (p = 0.267). At 1-year follow-up, 10 patients still reported depression, representing a 63% decrease. Postoperatively, both cohorts demonstrated improvement in their PROMs; however, at 1-year follow-up, those without depression had statistically better outcomes based on the EQ-5D, MCS, and SRS-22 scores (p < 0.05). Patients with depression continued to experience higher NRS leg scores at 1-year follow-up (3.63 vs 2.22, p = 0.018). After controlling for covariates, the authors found that depression significantly impacted only 1-year follow-up MCS scores (β = 8.490, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Depressed and nondepressed patients reported similar improvements after MIS surgery, except MCS scores were more likely to improve in nondepressed patients.

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Does the number of social factors affect long-term patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction in those with cervical myelopathy? A QOD study

Christine Park, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khoi D. Than, Erica F. Bisson, Brandon A. Sherrod, Anthony L. Asher, Domagoj Coric, Eric A. Potts, Kevin T. Foley, Michael Y. Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Michael S. Virk, John J. Knightly, Scott Meyer, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Mark E. Shaffrey, Avery L. Buchholz, Luis M. Tumialán, Jay D. Turner, Nitin Agarwal, Andrew K. Chan, Dean Chou, Nauman S. Chaudhry, Regis W. Haid Jr., Praveen V. Mummaneni, Georgios D. Michalopoulos, Mohamad Bydon, and Oren N. Gottfried

OBJECTIVE

It is not clear whether there is an additive effect of social factors in keeping patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) from achieving both a minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in outcomes and satisfaction after surgery. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of multiple social factors on postoperative outcomes and satisfaction.

METHODS

This was a multiinstitutional, retrospective study of the prospective Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM cohort, which included patients aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed with primary CSM and underwent operative management. Social factors included race (White vs non-White), education (high school or below vs above), employment (employed vs not), and insurance (private vs nonprivate). Patients were considered to have improved from surgery if the following criteria were met: 1) they reported a score of 1 or 2 on the North American Spine Society index, and 2) they met the MCID in patient-reported outcomes (i.e., visual analog scale [VAS] neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index [NDI], and EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D]).

RESULTS

Of the 1141 patients included in the study, 205 (18.0%) had 0, 347 (30.4%) had 1, 334 (29.3%) had 2, and 255 (22.3%) had 3 social factors. The 24-month follow-up rate was > 80% for all patient-reported outcomes. After adjusting for all relevant covariates (p < 0.02), patients with 1 or more social factors were less likely to improve from surgery in all measured outcomes including VAS neck pain (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.99) and arm pain (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.96); NDI (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.98); and EQ-5D (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83–0.97) (all p < 0.05) compared to those without any social factors. Patients with 2 social factors (outcomes: neck pain OR 0.86, arm pain OR 0.81, NDI OR 0.84, EQ-5D OR 0.81; all p < 0.05) or 3 social factors (outcomes: neck pain OR 0.84, arm pain OR 0.84, NDI OR 0.84, EQ-5D OR 0.84; all p < 0.05) were more likely to fare worse in all outcomes compared to those with only 1 social factor.

CONCLUSIONS

Compared to those without any social factors, patients who had at least 1 social factor were less likely to achieve MCID and feel satisfied after surgery. The effect of social factors is additive in that patients with a higher number of factors are less likely to improve compared to those with only 1 social factor.

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What predicts the best 24-month outcomes following surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy? A QOD prospective registry study

Andrew K. Chan, Christine Park, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Oren N. Gottfried, Khoi D. Than, Erica F. Bisson, Mohamad Bydon, Anthony L. Asher, Domagoj Coric, Eric A. Potts, Kevin T. Foley, Michael Y. Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Michael S. Virk, John J. Knightly, Scott Meyer, Paul Park, Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Mark E. Shaffrey, Avery L. Buchholz, Luis M. Tumialán, Jay D. Turner, Giorgos Michalopoulos, Brandon A. Sherrod, Nitin Agarwal, Dean Chou, Regis W. Haid Jr., and Praveen V. Mummaneni

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to identify predictors of the best 24-month improvements in patients undergoing surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). For this purpose, the authors leveraged a large prospective cohort of surgically treated patients with CSM to identify factors predicting the best outcomes for disability, quality of life, and functional status following surgery.

METHODS

This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) CSM dataset (1141 patients) at 14 top enrolling sites was used. Baseline and surgical characteristics were compared for those reporting the top and bottom 20th percentile 24-month Neck Disability Index (NDI), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) change scores. A multivariable logistic model was constructed and included candidate variables reaching p ≤ 0.20 on univariate analyses. Least important variables were removed in a stepwise manner to determine the significant predictors of the best outcomes (top 20th percentile) for 24-month NDI, EQ-5D, and mJOA change.

RESULTS

A total of 948 (83.1%) patients with 24-month follow-up were included in this study. For NDI, 204 (17.9%) had the best NDI outcome and 200 (17.5%) had the worst NDI outcome. Factors predicting the best NDI outcomes included symptom duration less than 12 months (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–1.9; p = 0.01); procedure other than posterior fusion (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03–2.1; p = 0.03); higher preoperative visual analog scale neck pain score (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.3; p < 0.001); and higher baseline NDI (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05–1.07; p < 0.001). For EQ-5D, 163 (14.3%) had the best EQ-5D outcome and 169 (14.8%) had the worst EQ-5D outcome. Factors predicting the best EQ-5D outcomes included arm pain–only complaints (compared to neck pain) (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.9; p = 0.002) and lower baseline EQ-5D (OR 167.7 per unit lower, 95% CI 85.0–339.4; p < 0.001). For mJOA, 222 (19.5%) had the best mJOA outcome and 238 (20.9%) had the worst mJOA outcome. Factors predicting the best mJOA outcomes included lower BMI (OR 1.03 per unit lower, 95% CI 1.004–1.05; p = 0.02; cutoff value of ≤ 29.5 kg/m2); arm pain–only complaints (compared to neck pain) (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.5; p = 0.02); and lower baseline mJOA (OR 1.6 per unit lower, 95% CI 1.5–1.7; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Compared to the worst outcomes for EQ-5D, the best outcomes were associated with patients with arm pain–only complaints. For mJOA, lower BMI and arm pain–only complaints portended the best outcomes. For NDI, those with the best outcomes had shorter symptom durations, higher preoperative neck pain scores, and less often underwent posterior spinal fusions. Given the positive impact of shorter symptom duration on outcomes, these data suggest that early surgery may be beneficial for patients with CSM.

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Risk factors for not reaching minimal clinically important difference at 90 days and 1 year after elective lumbar spine surgery: a cohort study

Travis Hamilton, Seokchun Lim, Edvin Telemi, Ho Jun Yun, Mohamed Macki, Lonni Schultz, Hsueh-Han Yeh, Kylie Springer, Kevin Taliaferro, Miguelangelo Perez-Cruet, Ilyas Aleem, Paul Park, Richard Easton, David R. Nerenz, Jason M. Schwalb, Muwaffak Abdulhak, and Victor Chang

OBJECTIVE

Patient-perceived functional improvement is a core metric in lumbar surgery for degenerative disease. It is important to identify both modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors that can be evaluated and possibly optimized prior to elective surgery. This case-control study was designed to study risk factors for not achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Function 4-item Short Form (PROMIS PF) score.

METHODS

The authors queried the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative database to identify patients who underwent elective lumbar surgical procedures with PROMIS PF scores. Cases were divided into two cohorts based on whether patients achieved MCID at 90 days and 1 year after surgery. Patient characteristics and operative details were analyzed as potential risk factors.

RESULTS

The authors captured 10,922 patients for 90-day follow-up and 4453 patients (40.8%) did not reach MCID. At the 1-year follow-up period, 7780 patients were identified and 2941 patients (37.8%) did not achieve MCID. The significant demographic characteristic–adjusted relative risks (RRs) for both groups (RR 90 day, RR 1 year) included the following: symptom duration > 1 year (1.34, 1.41); previous spine surgery (1.25, 1.30); African American descent (1.25, 1.20); chronic opiate use (1.23, 1.25); and less than high school education (1.20, 1.34). Independent ambulatory status (0.83, 0.88) and private insurance (0.91, 0.85) were associated with higher likelihood of reaching MCID at 90 days and 1 year, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Several key unique demographic risk factors were identified in this cohort study that precluded optimal postoperative functional outcomes after elective lumbar spine surgery. With this information, appropriate preoperative counseling can be administered to assist in shaping patient expectations.

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Does diabetes affect outcome or reoperation rate after lumbar decompression or arthrodesis? A matched analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database data set

Presented at the 2023 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

James Mooney, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Daniel Zeitouni, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Michael Y. Wang, Domagoj Coric, Andrew K. Chan, Daniel C. Lu, Brandon A. Sherrod, Oren N. Gottfried, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Khoi D. Than, Jacob L. Goldberg, Ibrahim Hussain, Michael S. Virk, Nitin Agarwal, Steven D. Glassman, Mark E. Shaffrey, Paul Park, Kevin T. Foley, Dean Chou, Jonathan R. Slotkin, Luis M. Tumialán, Cheerag D. Upadhyaya, Eric A. Potts, Kai-Ming G. Fu, Regis W. Haid, John J. Knightly, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Erica F. Bisson, Anthony L. Asher, and Mohamad Bydon

OBJECTIVE

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for postsurgical and systemic complications after lumbar spinal surgery. Smaller studies have also demonstrated diminished improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs), with increased reoperation and readmission rates after lumbar surgery in patients with DM. The authors aimed to examine longer-term PROs in patients with DM undergoing lumbar decompression and/or arthrodesis for degenerative pathology.

METHODS

The Quality Outcomes Database was queried for patients undergoing elective lumbar decompression and/or arthrodesis for degenerative pathology. Patients were grouped into DM and non-DM groups and optimally matched in a 1:1 ratio on 31 baseline variables, including the number of operated levels. Outcomes of interest were readmissions and reoperations at 30 and 90 days after surgery in addition to improvements in Oswestry Disability Index, back pain, and leg pain scores and quality-adjusted life-years at 90 days after surgery.

RESULTS

The matched decompression cohort comprised 7836 patients (3236 [41.3] females) with a mean age of 63.5 ± 12.6 years, and the matched arthrodesis cohort comprised 7336 patients (3907 [53.3%] females) with a mean age of 64.8 ± 10.3 years. In patients undergoing lumbar decompression, no significant differences in nonroutine discharge, length of stay (LOS), readmissions, reoperations, and PROs were observed. In patients undergoing lumbar arthrodesis, nonroutine discharge (15.7% vs 13.4%, p < 0.01), LOS (3.2 ± 2.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.5 days, p < 0.01), 30-day (6.5% vs 4.4%, p < 0.01) and 90-day (9.1% vs 7.0%, p < 0.01) readmission rates, and the 90-day reoperation rate (4.3% vs 3.2%, p = 0.01) were all significantly higher in the DM group. For DM patients undergoing lumbar arthrodesis, subgroup analyses demonstrated a significantly higher risk of poor surgical outcomes with the open approach.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with and without DM undergoing lumbar spinal decompression alone have comparable readmission and reoperation rates, while those undergoing arthrodesis procedures have a higher risk of poor surgical outcomes up to 90 days after surgery. Surgeons should target optimal DM control preoperatively, particularly for patients undergoing elective lumbar arthrodesis.