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Endovascular treatment as first-line therapy in Spetzler-Martin grade III brain arteriovenous malformations: a multicenter retrospective study

Julien Burel, Chrysanthi Papagiannaki, Nader Sourour, Atika Talbi, Matthieu Garnier, Capucine Hermary, Maichael Talaat, Anne-Laure Boch, Aurélien Nouet, Stéphanie Lenck, Kévin Premat, Eimad Shotar, and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

The management of Spetzler-Martin grade (SMG) III brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) may be challenging, whatever the exclusion treatment modality chosen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) as a first-line treatment of SMG III bAVMs.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective, two-center, observational cohort study. Cases recorded in institutional databases between January 1998 and June 2021 were reviewed. Patients who were ≥ 18 years of age, had ruptured or unruptured SMG III bAVMs, and received EVT as first-line therapy were included. Baseline characteristics of patients and bAVMs, procedure-related complications, clinical outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale, and angiographic follow-up were assessed. The independent risk factors of procedure-related complications and poor clinical outcome were assessed using binary logistic regression.

RESULTS

One hundred sixteen patients with 116 SMG III bAVMs were included. The mean age of the patients was 41.9 ± 14.0 years. The most common presentation was hemorrhage (66.4%). Forty-nine (42.2%) bAVMs were found to be completely obliterated by EVT alone at follow-up. Complications occurred in 39 patients (33.6%), including 5 (4.3%) major procedure-related complications. There was no independent predictor of procedure-related complication. Age > 40 years and poor preoperative modified Rankin Scale score were the independent predictors of poor clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

EVT of SMG III bAVMs provides encouraging results but needs further improvement. When the embolization procedure performed with intent to cure appears difficult and/or risky, a combined technique (with microsurgery or radiosurgery) may be a safer and more effective strategy. In terms of safety and effectiveness, the benefit of EVT (alone or included in a multimodal management strategy) for SMG III bAVMs needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials.

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Retrospective study of long-term outcome after brain arteriovenous malformation rupture: the RAP score

Eimad Shotar, Matthieu Debarre, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Federico Di Maria, Joseph Gabrieli, Aurélien Nouet, Jacques Chiras, Vincent Degos, and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome.

METHODS

The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1–13.7, p < 10−3), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66–21, p < 10−3) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8–0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6–87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9–96.2), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population-based studies will ensure full validation of the RAP scores' capacity to predict outcome after BAVM rupture.

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Extensive basal ganglia edema caused by a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: a rare presentation related to a basal vein of Rosenthal anatomical variation

Case report

Isabelle Ract, Aurélie Drier, Delphine Leclercq, Nader Sourour, Joseph Gabrieli, Marion Yger, Aurélien Nouet, Didier Dormont, Jacques Chiras, and Frédéric Clarençon

The authors report a very rare presentation of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with extensive edema of the basal ganglia and brainstem because of an anatomical variation of the basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR). A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' institution for left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and a comatose state caused by right orbital trauma from a thin metal rod. Brain MRI showed a right CCF and vasogenic edema of the right side of the brainstem, right temporal lobe, and basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed a high-flow direct CCF and revealed a hypoplastic second segment of the BVR responsible for the hypertension in inferior striate veins and venous congestion. Endovascular treatment was performed on an emergency basis. One month after treatment, the patient's symptoms and MRI signal abnormalities almost totally disappeared.

Basal ganglia and brainstem venous congestion may occur in traumatic CCF in cases of a hypoplastic or agenetic second segment of the BVR and may provoke emergency treatment.