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Maria R. H. Castro, Stephen T. Magill, Ramin A. Morshed, Jacob S. Young, Steve E. Braunstein, Michael W. McDermott, and Edward F. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Tumors compressing the trigeminal nerve can cause facial pain, numbness, or paresthesias. Limited data exist describing how these symptoms change after resection and what factors predict symptom improvement. The objective of this study was to report trigeminal pain and sensory outcomes after tumor resection and identify factors predicting postoperative symptom improvement.

METHODS

This retrospective study included patients with tumors causing facial pain, numbness, or paresthesias who underwent resection. Trigeminal schwannomas were excluded. Logistic regression, recursive partitioning, and time-to-event analyses were used to report outcomes and identify variables associated with facial sensory outcomes.

RESULTS

Eighty-six patients met inclusion criteria, and the median follow-up was 3.1 years; 63 patients (73%) had meningiomas and 23 (27%) had vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Meningioma patients presented with pain, numbness, and paresthesias in 56%, 76%, and 25% of cases, respectively, compared with 9%, 91%, and 39%, respectively, for patients with VS. Most meningioma patients had symptoms for less than 1 year (60%), whereas the majority of VS patients had symptoms for 1–5 years (59%). The median meningioma and VS diameters were 3.0 and 3.4 cm, respectively. For patients with meningiomas, gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 27% of patients, near-total resection (NTR) in 29%, and subtotal resection (STR) in 44%. For patients with VS, GTR was achieved in 9%, NTR in 30%, and STR in 61%. Pain improved immediately after tumor resection in 81% of patients and in 92% of patients by 6 weeks. Paresthesias improved immediately in 80% of patients, increasing to 84% by 6 weeks. Numbness improved more slowly, with 52% of patients improving immediately, increasing to 79% by 2 years. Pain recurred in 22% of patients with meningiomas and 0% of patients with VSs. After resection, the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) facial pain intensity score improved in 73% of patients. The tumor diameter significantly predicted improvement in BNI score (OR 0.47/cm larger, 95% CI 0.22–0.99; p = 0.047). Complete decompression of the trigeminal nerve was associated with qualitative improvement in pain (p = 0.037) and decreased pain recurrence (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.67; p = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS

Most patients with facial sensory symptoms caused by meningiomas or VSs experienced improvement after resection. Surgery led to immediate and sustained improvement in pain and paresthesias, whereas numbness was slower to improve. Patients with smaller tumors and complete decompression of the trigeminal nerve were more likely to experience improvement in facial pain.

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Zachary A. Seymour, Jason W. Chan, Michael W. McDermott, Inga Grills, Hong Ye, Hideyuki Kano, Craig A. Lehocky, Rachel C. Jacobs, L. Dade Lunsford, Tomas Chytka, Roman Liščák, Cheng-Chia Lee, Huai-che Yang, Dale Ding, Jason P. Sheehan, Caleb E. Feliciano, Rafael Rodriguez-Mercado, Veronica L. Chiang, Judith A. Hess, Samuel Sommaruga, Brendan McShane, John Y. K. Lee, Lucas T. Vasas, Anthony M. Kaufmann, and Penny K. Sneed

OBJECTIVE

The optimal treatment paradigm for large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is controversial. One approach is volume-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (VS-SRS). The authors previously reported efficacy of VS-SRS for large AVMs in a multiinstitutional cohort; here they focus on risk of symptomatic adverse radiation effects (AREs).

METHODS

This is a multicentered retrospective review of patients treated with a planned prospective volume staging approach to stereotactically treat the entire nidus of an AVM, with volume stages separated by intervals of 3–6 months. A total of 9 radiosurgical centers treated 257 patients with VS-SRS between 1991 and 2016. The authors evaluated permanent, transient, and total ARE events that were symptomatic.

RESULTS

Patients received 2–4 total volume stages. The median age was 33 years at the time of the first SRS volume stage, and the median follow-up was 5.7 years after VS-SRS. The median total AVM nidus volume was 23.25 cm3 (range 7.7–94.4 cm3), with a median margin dose per stage of 17 Gy (range 12–20 Gy). A total of 64 patients (25%) experienced an ARE, of which 19 were permanent. Rather than volume, maximal linear dimension in the Z (craniocaudal) dimension was associated with toxicity; a threshold length of 3.28 cm was associated with an ARE, with a 72.5% sensitivity and a 58.3% specificity. In addition, parietal lobe involvement for superficial lesions and temporal lobe involvement for deep lesions were associated with an ARE.

CONCLUSIONS

Size remains the dominant predictor of toxicity following SRS, but overall rates of AREs were lower than anticipated based on baseline features, suggesting that dose and size were relatively dissociated through volume staging. Further techniques need to be assessed to optimize outcomes.

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Ramin A. Morshed, Nicole T. Jiam, Elaina J. Wang, Stephen T. Magill, Renata M. Knoll, Elliott D. Kozin, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Steven W. Cheung, Jeffrey D. Sharon, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Ménière’s disease is an inner ear disorder classically characterized by fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness accompanied by episodic vertigo. While the pathogenesis of Ménière’s remains under debate, histopathological analyses implicate endolymphatic sac dysfunction with inner ear fluid homeostatic dysregulation. Little is known about whether external impingement of the endolymphatic sac by tumors may present with Ménière’s-like symptoms. The authors present a case series of 7 patients with posterior fossa meningiomas that involved the endolymphatic sac and new onset of Ménière’s-like symptoms and review the literature on this rare clinical entity.

METHODS

A retrospective review of patients undergoing resection of a posterior petrous meningioma was performed at the authors’ institution. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years; patients presenting with Ménière’s-like symptoms, including episodic vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss; and tumor location overlying the endolymphatic sac.

RESULTS

There were 7 cases of posterior petrous face meningiomas involving the vestibular aperture presenting with Ménière’s-like symptoms. Imaging and intraoperative examination confirmed no cranial nerve VIII compression or labyrinthine artery involvement accounting for audiovestibular symptoms. Of the 7 patients in the series, 6 experienced significant improvement or resolution of their vertigo, and all 7 had improvement or resolution of their tinnitus after resection. Of the 5 patients who had preoperative hearing loss, 2 experienced improvement or resolution of their ipsilateral preoperative hearing deficit, whereas the other 3 had unchanged hearing loss compared to preoperative evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS

Petrous face meningiomas overlying the endolymphatic sac can present with a Ménière’s syndrome. Early recognition and microsurgical excision of these tumors is critical for resolution of most symptoms and stabilization of hearing loss.

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Alfio Spina, Nicola Boari, and Pietro Mortini

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Reinier Alvarez, Rupesh Kotecha, Michael W. McDermott, and Vitaly Siomin

BACKGROUND

Providing the standard of care to patients with glioblastoma (GBM) during the novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge, particularly if a patient tests positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Further difficulties occur in eloquent cortex tumors because awake speech mapping can theoretically aerosolize viral particles and expose staff. Moreover, microscopic neurosurgery has become difficult because the use of airborne-level personal protective equipment (PPE) crowds the space between the surgeon and the eyepiece. However, delivering substandard care will inevitably lead to disease progression and poor outcomes.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old man with a left insular and frontal operculum GBM was found to be COVID-19 positive. Treatment was postponed pending a negative SARS-CoV-2 result, but in the interim, he developed intratumoral hemorrhage with progressive expressive aphasia. Because the tumor was causing dominant hemisphere language symptomatology, an awake craniotomy was the recommended surgical approach. With the use of airborne-level PPE and a surgical drape to protect the surgeon from the direction of potential aerosolization, near-total gross resection was achieved.

LESSONS

Delaying the treatment of patients with GBM who test positive for COVID-19 will lead to further neurological deterioration. Optimal and timely treatment such as awake speech mapping for COVID-19–positive patients with GBM can be provided safely.

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Simon G. Ammanuel, Caleb S. Edwards, Andrew K. Chan, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Joseph Kidane, Enrique Vargas, Sarah D’Souza, Amy D. Nichols, Sujatha Sankaran, Adib A. Abla, Manish K. Aghi, Edward F. Chang, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Sandeep Kunwar, Paul S. Larson, Michael T. Lawton, Philip A. Starr, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Mitchel S. Berger, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

Surgical site infection (SSI) is a complication linked to increased costs and length of hospital stay. Prevention of SSI is important to reduce its burden on individual patients and the healthcare system. The authors aimed to assess the efficacy of preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) showers on SSI rates following cranial surgery.

METHODS

In November 2013, a preoperative CHG shower protocol was implemented at the authors’ institution. A total of 3126 surgical procedures were analyzed, encompassing a time frame from April 2012 to April 2016. Cohorts before and after implementation of the CHG shower protocol were evaluated for differences in SSI rates.

RESULTS

The overall SSI rate was 0.6%. No significant differences (p = 0.11) were observed between the rate of SSI of the 892 patients in the preimplementation cohort (0.2%) and that of the 2234 patients in the postimplementation cohort (0.8%). Following multivariable analysis, implementation of preoperative CHG showers was not associated with decreased SSI (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 0.67–13.1; p = 0.15).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest study, according to sample size, to examine the association between CHG showers and SSI following craniotomy. CHG showers did not significantly alter the risk of SSI after a cranial procedure.

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Theodore H. Schwartz and Michael W. McDermott

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Theodore H. Schwartz and Michael W. McDermott

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Benjamin I. Rapoport, Michael W. McDermott, and Theodore H. Schwartz

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Benjamin I. Rapoport, Michael W. McDermott, and Theodore H. Schwartz