Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 105 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: McDermott, Michael W. x
Clear All
Open access

“Open-window” craniectomy for the removal of frontal sinus mucosa to prevent a delayed mucocele: illustrative case

W. Caleb Rutledge, 1 2 MS, Ahmad Ozair, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Brian Niehaus, and Michael W. McDermott

BACKGROUND

Frontal craniotomies for a medial subfrontal approach necessitate crossing the frontal sinus. Large superior extensions of the frontal sinus into frontal bone can result in mucosal retention in a free craniotomy bone flap, leading to a delayed mucocele with significant associated morbidity. The authors describe an “open-window” craniectomy technique that permits mucosal removal under direct vision and maintains the inner table on the bone flap’s inferior side, helping to seal off the sinus opening with a pericranial flap.

OBSERVATIONS

An illustrative case involving a medial right frontal craniotomy for a third ventricle mass in a patient with a large superior extension of the frontal sinus into frontal bone is presented. After creating a free frontal bone flap, the inner table was drilled out to the margins of the frontal sinus cavity and any remaining mucosa was cleared. A portion of the inner table above the bone flap’s inferior margin was left in place, resembling an open window when viewed from the inner table side. The remaining anterior and posterior wall of the flap inferiorly provided a matched surface for the opening into the remaining frontal sinus, which was covered by pericranium. Long-term follow-up indicated no major complications or delayed mucocele.

LESSONS

The open-window craniectomy technique can be considered for frontal sinus violations in patients with large superior frontal bone extension.

Restricted access

Intraventricular meningioma resection and visual outcomes

John P. Andrews, Daniel D. Cummins, Ramin A. Morshed, Benyam Kinde, Manish K. Aghi, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

OBJECTIVE

Intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs) of the lateral ventricle are rare tumors that present surgical challenges because of their deep location. Visual field deficits (VFDs) are one risk associated with these tumors and their treatment. VFDs may be present preoperatively due to the tumor and mass effect (tumor VFDs) or may develop postoperatively due to the surgical approach (surgical VFDs). This institutional series aimed to review surgical outcomes following resection of IVMs, with a focus on VFDs.

METHODS

Patients who received IVM resection at one academic institution between the years 1996 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reconstructions of the optic radiations around the tumor were performed from preoperative IVM imaging. The VFD course and resolution were documented.

RESULTS

Thirty-two adult patients underwent IVM resection, with gross-total resection in 30 patients (93.8%). Preoperatively, tumor VFDs were present in 6 patients, resolving after surgery in 5 patients. Five other patients (without preoperative VFD) had new persistent surgical VFDs postoperatively (5/32, 15.6%) that persisted to the most recent follow-up. Of the 5 patients with persistent surgical VFDs, 4 received a transtemporal approach and 1 received a transparietal approach, and all these deficits occurred prior to regular use of DTI in preoperative imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

New surgical VFDs are a common neurological deficit after IVM resection. Preoperative DTI may demonstrate distortion of the optic radiations around the tumor, thus revealing safe operative corridors to prevent surgical VFDs.

Restricted access

Analysis of upfront resection or stereotactic radiosurgery for local control of solid and cystic cerebellar hemangioblastomas

Luis R. Carrete, Ramin A. Morshed, Jacob S. Young, Lauro N. Avalos, Penny K. Sneed, Manish K. Aghi, Michael W. McDermott, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to identify rates of and risk factors for local tumor progression in patients who had undergone surgery or radiosurgery for the management of cerebellar hemangioblastoma and to describe treatments pursued following tumor progression.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective single-center review of patients who had undergone treatment of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with either surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) between 1996 and 2019. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with local tumor control.

RESULTS

One hundred nine patients met the study inclusion criteria. Overall, these patients had a total of 577 hemangioblastomas, 229 of which were located in the cerebellum. The surgical and SRS cohorts consisted of 106 and 123 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, respectively. For patients undergoing surgery, tumors were treated with subtotal resection and gross-total resection in 5.7% and 94.3% of cases, respectively. For patients receiving SRS, the mean target volume was 0.71 cm3 and the mean margin dose was 18.0 Gy. Five-year freedom from lesion progression for the surgical and SRS groups was 99% and 82%, respectively. The surgical and SRS cohorts contained 32% versus 97% von Hippel–Lindau tumors, 78% versus 7% cystic hemangioblastomas, and 12.8- versus 0.56-cm3 mean tumor volumes, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with local tumor progression in the SRS group included older patient age (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.09, p < 0.001) and a cystic component (HR 9.0, 95% CI 2.03–32.0, p = 0.001). Repeat SRS as salvage therapy was used more often for smaller tumor recurrences, and no tumor recurrences of < 1.0 cm3 required additional salvage surgery following repeat SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Both surgery and SRS achieve high rates of local control of hemangioblastomas. Age and cystic features are associated with local progression after SRS treatment for cerebellar hemangioblastomas. In cases of local tumor recurrence, salvage surgery and repeat SRS are valid forms of treatment to achieve local tumor control, although resection may be preferable for larger recurrences.

Free access

Genomic alterations associated with rapid progression of brain metastases

Amalie S. V. Uggerly, Daniel D. Cummins, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Mariza Daras, Manish K. Aghi, and Ramin A. Morshed

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate associations between genomic alterations in resected brain metastases and rapid local and distant CNS recurrence identified at the time of postoperative adjuvant radiosurgery.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study on patients who underwent resection of intracranial brain metastases. Next-generation sequencing of more than 500 coding genes was performed on brain metastasis specimens. Postoperative and preradiosurgery MR images were compared to identify rapid recurrence. Genomic data were associated with rapid local and distant CNS recurrence of brain metastases using nominal regression analyses.

RESULTS

The cohort contained 92 patients with 92 brain metastases. Thirteen (14.1%) patients had a rapid local recurrence, and 64 (69.6%) patients had rapid distant CNS progression by the time of postoperative adjuvant radiosurgery, which occurred in a median time of 25 days (range 3–85 days) from surgery. RB1 and CTNNB1 mutations were seen in 8.7% and 9.8% of the cohort, respectively, and were associated with a significantly higher risk of rapid local recurrence (RB1: OR 13.6, 95% CI 2.0–92.39, p = 0.008; and CTNNB1: OR 11.97, 95% CI 2.25–63.78, p = 0.004) on multivariate analysis. No genes were found to be associated with rapid distant CNS progression. However, the presence of extracranial disease was significantly associated with a higher risk of rapid distant recurrence on multivariate analysis (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.08–15.34, p = 0.039).

CONCLUSIONS

Genomic alterations in RB1 or CTNNB1 were associated with a significantly higher risk of rapid recurrence at the resection site. Although no genomic alterations were associated with rapid distant recurrence, having active extracranial disease was a risk factor for new lesions by the time of adjuvant radiotherapy after resection.

Restricted access

Genomic alterations associated with postoperative nodular leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Daniel D. Cummins, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Harish N. Vasudevan, Steve E. Braunstein, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Mariza Daras, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

The relationship between brain metastasis resection and risk of nodular leptomeningeal disease (nLMD) is unclear. This study examined genomic alterations found in brain metastases with the aim of identifying alterations associated with postoperative nLMD in the context of clinical and treatment factors.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on patients who underwent resection of brain metastases between 2014 and 2022 and had clinical and genomic data available. Postoperative nLMD was the primary endpoint of interest. Targeted next-generation sequencing of > 500 oncogenes was performed in brain metastases. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify clinical features and genomic alterations associated with nLMD.

RESULTS

The cohort comprised 101 patients with tumors originating from multiple cancer types. There were 15 patients with nLMD (14.9% of the cohort) with a median time from surgery to nLMD diagnosis of 8.2 months. Two supervised machine learning algorithms consistently identified CDKN2A/B codeletion and ERBB2 amplification as the top predictors associated with postoperative nLMD across all cancer types. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis including clinical factors and genomic alterations observed in the cohort, tumor volume (× 10 cm3; HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.5; p = 0.04), CDKN2A/B codeletion (HR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7–16.9; p = 0.004), and ERBB2 amplification (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1–14.4; p = 0.04) were associated with a decreased time to postoperative nLMD.

CONCLUSIONS

In addition to increased resected tumor volume, ERBB2 amplification and CDKN2A/B deletion were independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative nLMD across multiple cancer types. Additional work is needed to determine if targeted therapy decreases this risk in the postoperative setting.

Restricted access

Does waiting for surgery matter? How time from diagnostic MRI to resection affects outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

Jacob S. Young, Nadeem N. Al-Adli, Rachel Muster, Ankush Chandra, Ramin A. Morshed, Matheus P. Pereira, Eric J. Chalif, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe resection is the standard of care for patients presenting with lesions concerning for glioblastoma (GBM) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, there is no consensus on surgical urgency for patients with an excellent performance status, which complicates patient counseling and may increase patient anxiety. This study aims to assess the impact of time to surgery (TTS) on clinical and survival outcomes in patients with GBM.

METHODS

This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed IDH–wild-type GBM who underwent initial resection at the University of California, San Francisco, between 2014 and 2016. Patients were grouped according to the time from diagnostic MRI to surgery (i.e., TTS): ≤ 7, > 7–21, and > 21 days. Contrast-enhancing tumor volumes (CETVs) were measured using software. Initial CETV (CETV1) and preoperative CETV (CETV2) were used to evaluate tumor growth represented as percent change (ΔCETV) and specific growth rate (SPGR; % growth/day). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the date of resection and were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of the 145 patients (median TTS 10 days), 56 (39%), 53 (37%), and 36 (25%) underwent surgery ≤ 7, > 7–21, and > 21 days from initial imaging, respectively. Median OS and PFS among the study cohort were 15.5 and 10.3 months, respectively, and did not differ among the TTS groups (p = 0.81 and 0.17, respectively). Median CETV1 was 35.9, 15.7, and 10.2 cm3 across the TTS groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Preoperative biopsy and presenting to an outside hospital emergency department were associated with an average 12.79-day increase and 9.09-day decrease in TTS, respectively. Distance from the treating facility (median 57.19 miles) did not affect TTS. In the growth cohort, TTS was associated with an average 2.21% increase in ΔCETV per day; however, there was no effect of TTS on SPGR, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), postoperative deficits, survival, discharge location, or hospital length of stay. Subgroup analyses did not identify any high-risk groups for which a shorter TTS may be beneficial.

CONCLUSIONS

An increased TTS for patients with imaging concerning for GBM did not impact clinical outcomes, and while there was a significant association with ΔCETV, SPGR remained unaffected. However, SPGR was associated with a worse preoperative KPS, which highlights the importance of tumor growth speed over TTS. Therefore, while it is ill advised to wait an unnecessarily long time after initial imaging studies, these patients do not require urgent/emergency surgery and can seek tertiary care opinions and/or arrange for additional preoperative support/resources. Future studies are needed to explore subgroups for whom TTS may impact clinical outcomes.

Free access

Identification of risk factors associated with leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Satvir Saggi, Daniel D. Cummins, Annette M. Molinaro, Jacob S. Young, Jennifer A. Viner, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Lauren Boreta, Steve E. Braunstein, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Manish K. Aghi, and Mariza Daras

OBJECTIVE

Resection of brain metastases (BMs) may be associated with increased risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD). This study examined rates and predictors of LMD, including imaging subtypes, in patients who underwent resection of a BM followed by postoperative radiation.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted examining overall LMD, classic LMD (cLMD), and nodular LMD (nLMD) risk. Logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, and random forest analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with LMD.

RESULTS

Of the 217 patients in the cohort, 47 (21.7%) developed postoperative LMD, with 19 cases (8.8%) of cLMD and 28 cases (12.9%) of nLMD. Six-, 12-, and 24-month LMD-free survival rates were 92.3%, 85.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. Patients with cLMD had worse survival outcomes from the date of LMD diagnosis compared with nLMD (median 2.4 vs 6.9 months, p = 0.02, log-rank test). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified cerebellar/insular/occipital location (hazard ratio [HR] 3.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73–6.11, p = 0.0003), absence of extracranial disease (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27–4.88, p = 0.008), and ventricle contact (HR 2.82, 95% CI 1.5–5.3, p = 0.001) to be associated with postoperative LMD. A predictive model using random forest analysis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 in a test cohort identified tumor location, systemic disease status, and tumor volume as the most important factors associated with LMD.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor location, absence of extracranial disease at the time of surgery, ventricle contact, and increased tumor volume were associated with LMD. Further work is needed to determine whether escalating therapies in patients at risk of LMD prevents disease dissemination.

Free access

Letter to the Editor. Tumor compression and trigeminal paresthesias

Jeffrey A. Brown

Free access

Supervised machine learning algorithms demonstrate proliferation index correlates with long-term recurrence after complete resection of WHO grade I meningioma

Minh P. Nguyen, Ramin A. Morshed, Cecilia L. Dalle Ore, Daniel D. Cummins, Satvir Saggi, William C. Chen, Abrar Choudhury, Akshay Ravi, David R. Raleigh, Stephen T. Magill, Michael W. McDermott, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, and resection is a mainstay of treatment. It is unclear what duration of imaging follow-up is reasonable for WHO grade I meningiomas undergoing complete resection. This study examined recurrence rates, timing of recurrence, and risk factors for recurrence in patients undergoing a complete resection (as defined by both postoperative MRI and intraoperative impression) of WHO grade I meningiomas.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective, single-center study examining recurrence risk for adult patients with a single intracranial meningioma that underwent complete resection. Uni- and multivariate nominal logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify variables associated with recurrence and time to recurrence. Two supervised machine learning algorithms were then implemented to confirm factors within the cohort that were associated with recurrence.

RESULTS

The cohort consisted of 823 patients who met inclusion criteria, and 56 patients (6.8%) had recurrence on imaging follow-up. The median age of the cohort was 56 years, and 77.4% of patients were female. The median duration of head imaging follow-up for the entire cohort was 2.7 years, but for the subgroup of patients who had a recurrence, the median follow-up was 10.1 years. Estimated 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year recurrence-free survival rates were 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98.8%–99.9%), 91.0% (95% CI 87.7%–93.6%), 83.6% (95% CI 78.6%–87.6%), and 77.3% (95% CI 69.7%–83.4%), respectively, for the entire cohort. On multivariate analysis, MIB-1 index (odds ratio [OR] per 1% increase: 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.58, p = 0.0003) and follow-up duration (OR per year: 1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, p = 0.012) were both associated with recurrence. Gradient-boosted decision tree and random forest analyses both identified MIB-1 index as the main factor associated with recurrence, aside from length of imaging follow-up. For tumors with an MIB-1 index < 8, recurrences were documented up to 8 years after surgery. For tumors with an MIB-1 index ≥ 8, recurrences were documented up to 12 years following surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

Long-term imaging follow-up is important even after a complete resection of a meningioma. Higher MIB-1 labeling index is associated with greater risk of recurrence. Imaging screening for at least 8 years in patients with an MIB-1 index < 8 and at least 12 years for those with an MIB-1 index ≥ 8 may be needed to detect long-term recurrences.

Free access

Adverse radiation effect and freedom from progression following repeat stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases

Penny K. Sneed, Jason W. Chan, Lijun Ma, Steve E. Braunstein, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shannon E. Fogh, Jean L. Nakamura, Lauren Boreta, David R. Raleigh, Benjamin P. Ziemer, Olivier Morin, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Michael W. McDermott

OBJECTIVE

The authors previously evaluated risk and time course of adverse radiation effects (AREs) following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases, excluding lesions treated after prior SRS. In the present analysis they focus specifically on single-fraction salvage SRS to brain metastases previously treated with SRS or hypofractionated SRS (HFSRS), evaluating freedom from progression (FFP) and the risk and time course of AREs.

METHODS

Brain metastases treated from September 1998 to May 2019 with single-fraction SRS after prior SRS or HFSRS were analyzed. Serial follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical pathology reports were reviewed to score local treatment failure and AREs. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate FFP and risk of ARE measured from the date of repeat SRS with censoring at the last brain MRI.

RESULTS

A total of 229 retreated brain metastases in 124 patients were evaluable. The most common primary cancers were breast, lung, and melanoma. The median interval from prior SRS/HFSRS to repeat SRS was 15.4 months, the median prescription dose was 18 Gy, and the median duration of follow-up imaging was 14.5 months. At 1 year after repeat SRS, FFP was 80% and the risk of symptomatic ARE was 11%. The 1-year risk of imaging changes, including asymptomatic RE and symptomatic ARE, was 30%. Among lesions that demonstrated RE, the median time to onset was 6.7 months (IQR 4.7–9.9 months) and the median time to peak imaging changes was 10.1 months (IQR 5.6–13.6 months). Lesion size by quadratic mean diameter (QMD) showed similar results for QMDs ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 cm (1-year FFP 82%, 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE 11%). For QMD < 0.75 cm, the 1-year FFP was 86% and the 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE was only 2%. Outcomes were worse for QMDs 2.01–3.0 cm (1-year FFP 65%, 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE 24%). The risk of symptomatic ARE was not increased with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunotherapy before or after repeat SRS.

CONCLUSIONS

RE on imaging was common after repeat SRS (30% at 1 year), but the risk of a symptomatic ARE was much less (11% at 1 year). The results of repeat single-fraction SRS were good for brain metastases ≤ 2 cm. The authors recommend an interval ≥ 6 months from prior SRS and a prescription dose ≥ 18 Gy. Alternatives such as HFSRS, laser interstitial thermal therapy, or resection with adjuvant radiation should be considered for recurrent brain metastases > 2 cm.