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David C. Lauzier, Samuel J. Cler, Anna L. Huguenard, Arindam R. Chatterjee, and Joshua W. Osbun

Open access

Lorenzo Rinaldo, Soliman Oushy, and Giuseppe Lanzino

Aneurysms associated with a vertebrobasilar fenestration are rare lesions and can grow to a giant size, presenting significant therapeutic challenges. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms has traditionally been with coiling; however, flow diverter placement within the fenestration arms has recently proven to be a viable treatment strategy. The authors present a case of a giant vertebrobasilar fenestration aneurysm in a patient presenting with a cranial nerve VI palsy. The lesion was treated by using a combination of flow diverter placement and vertebral artery sacrifice. The nuances of flow diversion therapy for these aneurysms and the management of intra- and postoperative complications are discussed.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.7.FOCVID2256

Free access

Giuseppe Lanzino and Lorenzo Rinaldo

Free access

Louis J. Kim, Oliver Bozinov, Judy Huang, and Giuseppe Lanzino

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Edoardo Agosti, Stephen Graepel, and Giuseppe Lanzino

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are some of the most challenging surgical entities. Like any challenging surgical procedure, AVM surgery is a series of basic but fundamental steps, each with its own nuances. Despite a myriad of published material regarding AVMs, there are few succinct illustrated summaries of these steps with an accompanying elucidation of the most common pitfalls. This paper provides a step-by-step description and illustration of the basic surgical principles of AVM microsurgical resection, focusing on the main key points and addressing the critical issues that surround this surgery. Deep anatomical knowledge and presurgical planning of these basic steps, combined with good contingency management skills, are paramount for an effective and safe AVM surgery.

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Soliman Oushy, Hannah E. Gilder, Cody L. Nesvick, Giuseppe Lanzino, Bruce E. Pollock, David J. Daniels, and Edward S. Ahn

OBJECTIVE

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in children, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the rate of AVM recurrence in children is significantly higher than in adults. The aim of this study was to define the risk of delayed pediatric AVM (pAVM) recurrence following confirmed radiological obliteration. Further understanding of this risk could inform the role of long-term radiological surveillance.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective review of ruptured and unruptured pAVM cases treated at a single tertiary care referral center between 1994 and 2019. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and AVM recurrence were analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 102 pediatric patients with intracranial AVMs, including 52 (51%) ruptured cases, were identified. The mean patient age at presentation was 11.2 ± 4.4 years, and 51 (50%) patients were female. The mean nidus size was 2.66 ± 1.44 cm. The most common Spetzler-Martin grades were III (32%) and II (31%). Stereotactic radiosurgery was performed in 69.6% of patients. AVM obliteration was radiologically confirmed in 68 (72.3%) of 94 patients with follow-up imaging, on angiography in 50 (73.5%) patients and on magnetic resonance imaging in 18 (26.5%). AVM recurrence was identified in 1 (2.3%) of 43 patients with long-term surveillance imaging over a mean follow-up of 54.7 ± 38.9 months (range 2–153 months). This recurrence was identified in a boy who had presented with a ruptured AVM and had been surgically treated at 5 years of age. The AVM recurred 54 months after confirmed obliteration on surveillance digital subtraction angiography. Two other cases of presumed AVM recurrence following resection in young children were excluded from recurrence analysis because of incomplete sets of imaging available for review.

CONCLUSIONS

AVM recurrence following confirmed obliteration on imaging is a rare phenomenon, though it occurs more frequently in the pediatric population. Regular long-term follow-up with dedicated surveillance angiography is recommended even after obliteration following resection.

Open access

Carmen R. Holmes, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Kelly D. Flemming

BACKGROUND

Little is known about whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) influences cavernous malformation (CM) formation or hemorrhage risk.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 31-year-old patient who developed a hemorrhagic, de novo CM in the setting of a developmental venous anomaly within 3 months of COVID-19 respiratory disease. The authors speculate that COVID-19 disease stimulated formation of the CM through TLR4 inflammatory pathways and subsequently led to the hemorrhagic presentation because of hypercoagulability related to the disease.

LESSONS

This case raises the possibility that COVID-19 may be a risk factor for de novo development of CMs in predisposed patients.

Free access

Philipp Dammann, Adib A. Abla, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Vladimir Benes, Marco Cenzato, E. Sander Connolly Jr., Jan F. Cornelius, William T. Couldwell, Rafael G. Sola, Santiago Gomez-Paz, Erik Hauck, Juha Hernesniemi, Juri Kivelev, Giuseppe Lanzino, R. Loch Macdonald, Jacques J. Morcos, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Gary K. Steinberg, Alejandro N. Santos, Laurèl Rauschenbach, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Börge Schmidt, Robert F. Spetzler, Karl Schaller, Michael T. Lawton, and Ulrich Sure

OBJECTIVE

Indication for surgery in brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) is based on many case series, few comparative studies, and no randomized controlled trials. The objective of this study was to seek consensus about surgical management aspects of BSCM.

METHODS

A total of 29 experts were invited to participate in a multistep Delphi consensus process on the surgical treatment of BSCM.

RESULTS

Twenty-two (76%) of 29 experts participated in the consensus. Qualitative analysis (content analysis) of an initial open-ended question survey resulted in 99 statements regarding surgical treatment of BSCM. By using a multistep survey with 100% participation in each round, consensus was reached on 52 (53%) of 99 statements. These were grouped into 4 categories: 1) definitions and reporting standards (7/14, 50%); 2) general and patient-related aspects (11/16, 69%); 3) anatomical-, timing of surgery–, and BSCM-related aspects (22/37, 59%); and 4) clinical situation–based decision-making (12/32, 38%). Among other things, a consensus was reached for surgical timing, handling of associated developmental venous anomalies, handling of postoperative BSCM remnants, assessment of specific anatomical BSCM localizations, and treatment decisions in typical clinical BSCM scenarios.

CONCLUSIONS

A summary of typical clinical scenarios and a catalog of various BSCM- and patient-related aspects that influence the surgical treatment decision have been defined, rated, and interpreted.

Free access

Isaac Josh Abecassis, R. Michael Meyer, Michael R. Levitt, Jason P. Sheehan, Ching-Jen Chen, Bradley A. Gross, Ashley Lockerman, W. Christopher Fox, Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino, Robert M. Starke, Stephanie H. Chen, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Andrew Durnford, Diederik Bulters, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Amanda Kwasnicki, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Edgar A. Samaniego, Minako Hayakawa, Colin P. Derdeyn, Ethan Winkler, Adib Abla, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, Louis J. Kim, and

OBJECTIVE

There is a reported elevated risk of cerebral aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). However, the natural history, rate of spontaneous regression, and ideal treatment regimen are not well characterized. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with dAVFs and intracranial aneurysms and propose a classification system.

METHODS

The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database from 12 centers was retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed to compare dAVF patients with (dAVF+ cohort) and without (dAVF-only cohort) concomitant aneurysm. Aneurysms were categorized based on location as a dAVF flow-related aneurysm (FRA) or a dAVF non–flow-related aneurysm (NFRA), with further classification as extra- or intradural. Patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms with associated arteriovenous malformations were excluded from the analysis. Patient demographics, dAVF anatomical information, aneurysm information, and follow-up data were collected.

RESULTS

Of the 1077 patients, 1043 were eligible for inclusion, comprising 978 (93.8%) and 65 (6.2%) in the dAVF-only and dAVF+ cohorts, respectively. There were 96 aneurysms in the dAVF+ cohort; 10 patients (1%) harbored 12 FRAs, and 55 patients (5.3%) harbored 84 NFRAs. Dural AVF+ patients had higher rates of smoking (59.3% vs 35.2%, p < 0.001) and illicit drug use (5.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02). Sixteen dAVF+ patients (24.6%) presented with aneurysm rupture, which represented 16.7% of the total aneurysms. One patient (1.5%) had aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Patients with dAVF+ were more likely to have a dAVF located in nonconventional locations, less likely to have arterial supply to the dAVF from external carotid artery branches, and more likely to have supply from pial branches. Rates of cortical venous drainage and Borden type distributions were comparable between cohorts. A minority (12.5%) of aneurysms were FRAs. The majority of the aneurysms underwent treatment via either endovascular (36.5%) or microsurgical (15.6%) technique. A small proportion of aneurysms managed conservatively either with or without dAVF treatment spontaneously regressed (6.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with dAVF have a similar risk of harboring a concomitant intracranial aneurysm unrelated to the dAVF (5.3%) compared with the general population (approximately 2%–5%) and a rare risk (0.9%) of harboring an FRA. Only 50% of FRAs are intradural. Dural AVF+ patients have differences in dAVF angioarchitecture. A subset of dAVF+ patients harbor FRAs that may regress after dAVF treatment.

Free access

Ridhima Guniganti, Enrico Giordan, Ching-Jen Chen, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Andrew Durnford, Jessica Smith, Edgar A. Samaniego, Colin P. Derdeyn, Amanda Kwasnicki, Ali Alaraj, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Samir Sur, Stephanie H. Chen, Yoshiteru Tada, Ethan Winkler, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Rose Du, Adib Abla, Junichiro Satomi, Robert M. Starke, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Minako Hayakawa, Bradley A. Gross, W. Christopher Fox, Diederik Bulters, Louis J. Kim, Jason Sheehan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Jay F. Piccirillo, Akash P. Kansagra, Gregory J. Zipfel, and

OBJECTIVE

Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort.

METHODS

Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained.

RESULTS

CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120–1038.5 days).

CONCLUSIONS

With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.