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A re-evaluation of the Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Success Score: a Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network study

Leonard H. Verhey, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ron W. Reeder, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Hailey Jensen, Ian F. Pollack, Brandon G. Rocque, Mandeep S. Tamber, Patrick J. McDonald, Mark D. Krieger, Jonathan A. Pindrik, Jason S. Hauptman, Samuel R. Browd, William E. Whitehead, Eric M. Jackson, John C. Wellons III, Todd C. Hankinson, Jason Chu, David D. Limbrick Jr., Jennifer M. Strahle, John R. W. Kestle, and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) conducted a prospective study 1) to determine if a new, better-performing version of the Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Success Score (ETVSS) could be developed, 2) to explore the performance characteristics of the original ETVSS in a modern endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) cohort, and 3) to determine if the addition of radiological variables to the ETVSS improved its predictive abilities.

METHODS

From April 2008 to August 2019, children (corrected age ≤ 17.5 years) who underwent a first-time ETV for hydrocephalus were included in a prospective multicenter HCRN study. All children had at least 6 months of clinical follow-up and were followed since the index ETV in the HCRN Core Data Registry. Children who underwent choroid plexus cauterization were excluded. Outcome (ETV success) was defined as the lack of ETV failure within 6 months of the index procedure. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to evaluate time-dependent variables. Multivariable binary logistic models were built to evaluate predictors of ETV success. Model performance was evaluated with Hosmer-Lemeshow and Harrell’s C statistics.

RESULTS

Seven hundred sixty-one children underwent a first-time ETV. The rate of 6-month ETV success was 76%. The Hosmer-Lemeshow and Harrell’s C statistics of the logistic model containing more granular age and etiology categorizations did not differ significantly from a model containing the ETVSS categories. In children ≥ 12 months of age with ETVSSs of 50 or 60, the original ETVSS underestimated success, but this analysis was limited by a small sample size. Fronto-occipital horn ratio (p = 0.37), maximum width of the third ventricle (p = 0.39), and downward concavity of the floor of the third ventricle (p = 0.63) did not predict ETV success. A possible association between the degree of prepontine adhesions on preoperative MRI and ETV success was detected, but this did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

This modern, multicenter study of ETV success shows that the original ETVSS continues to demonstrate good predictive ability, which was not substantially improved with a new success score. There might be an association between preoperative prepontine adhesions and ETV success, and this needs to be evaluated in a future large prospective study.

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Complications following resection of primary and recurrent pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma

Armaan K. Malhotra, Liana Nobre, George M. Ibrahim, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James M. Drake, James T. Rutka, Michael D. Taylor, Vijay Ramaswamy, Peter B. Dirks, and Michael C. Dewan

OBJECTIVE

Extent of resection (EOR) is the most important modifiable prognostic variable for pediatric patients with posterior fossa ependymoma. An understanding of primary and recurrent ependymoma complications is essential to inform clinical decision-making for providers, patients, and families. In this study, the authors characterize postsurgical complications following resection of primary and recurrent pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma in a molecularly defined cohort.

METHODS

The authors conducted a 20-year retrospective single-center review of pediatric patients undergoing resection of posterior fossa ependymoma at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Complications were dichotomized into major and minor groups; EOR was compared across complication categories. The association between complication occurrence with length of stay (LOS) and mortality was also assessed using multivariable regressions.

RESULTS

There were 60 patients with primary resection included, 41 (68%) of whom were alive at the time of data collection. Gross-total resection was achieved in 33 (58%) of 57 patients at primary resection. There were no 30-day mortality events following primary and recurrent ependymoma resection. Following primary resection, 6 patients (10%) had posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) and 36 (60%) developed cranial neuropathies, 56% of which recovered within 1 year. One patient (1.7%) required a tracheostomy and 9 patients (15%) required gastrostomy tubes. There were 14 ventriculoperitoneal shunts (23%) inserted for postoperative hydrocephalus. Among recurrent cases, there were 48 recurrent resections performed in 24 patients. Complications included new cranial neuropathy in 10 patients (21%), of which 5 neuropathies resolved within 1 year. There were no cases of PFS following resection of recurrent ependymoma. Gastrostomy tube insertion was required in 3 patients (6.3%), and 1 patient (2.0%) required a tracheostomy. Given the differences in the location of tumor recurrence, a direct comparison between primary and recurrent resection complications was not feasible. Following multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, molecular status, and EOR, occurrence of major complications was found to be associated with prolonged LOS but not mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

These results detail the spectrum of postsurgical morbidity following primary and recurrent posterior fossa ependymoma resection. The crude complication rate following resection of infratentorial recurrent ependymoma was lower than that of primary ependymoma, although a statistical comparison revealed no significant differences between the groups. These results should serve to inform providers of the morbidity profile following surgical management of posterior fossa ependymoma and inform perioperative counseling of patients and their families.

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Risk factors associated with in-hospital adverse events: a multicenter observational cohort study of 1853 pediatric patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

Armaan K. Malhotra, Christopher S. Lozano, Husain Shakil, Christopher W. Smith, George M. Ibrahim, David E. Lebel, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Jefferson R. Wilson, Christopher D. Witiw, and Avery B. Nathens

OBJECTIVE

In this study, the authors aimed to quantify the frequency of in-hospital major adverse events (AEs) in a multicenter cohort of pediatric patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) managed at North American trauma centers. They also sought to identify patient and injury factors associated with the occurrence of major and immobility-related AEs.

METHODS

Data derived from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) were used to identify a cohort of pediatric patients (age < 19 years) with traumatic SCI. The authors identified individuals with major and immobility-related AEs following injury. They used mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression to identify clinical variables associated with AEs after injury. This analytical approach allowed them to account for similarities in care delivery between patients managed in the same trauma settings during the study period while also adjusting for patient-level confounders. The adjusted impact of AEs on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) were also assessed through further multivariable regression analysis. Additional subgroup analyses were performed to reduce bias associated with competing risks and explore the age-specific risk factor associations with AEs.

RESULTS

A total of 1853 pediatric patients who sustained either cervical or thoracic SCI were managed at ACS TQIP trauma centers between 2017 and 2020. The most frequently encountered AE types were pressure ulcer, unplanned intubation, cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The crude rate of major in-hospital and immobility-related AEs significantly differed between subgroups, with higher proportions of AEs in complete injuries compared with incomplete injuries. The adjusted risk for major AE following injury was significantly elevated for cervical complete SCI, patients with severe concomitant abdominal injuries, and for those presenting with depressed Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 13. These same risk factors were associated with major AEs in children older than 8 years but were not significant for younger children (age ≤ 8 years). Complication occurrence was not associated with difference in risk-adjusted mortality (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.45–1.14), but did increase LOS by 2.2 days (95% CI 1.4–2.7 days).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors outlined the prevalence of in-hospital AEs in a large multicenter cohort of North American pediatric SCI patients. Important risk factors predisposing this population to AEs include cervical complete injuries, simultaneous abdominal trauma, and Glasgow Coma Scale scores < 13 at presentation. Postinjury complications impacted health resource utilization by increased LOS but did not affect postinjury mortality. These findings have important implications for pediatric SCI providers and future care quality benchmarking.

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Supraorbital minicraniotomy for open Ommaya reservoir placement in pediatric craniopharyngiomas: a case series and technical report

Ladina Greuter, Oliver L. Richards, Noor Malik, Sara Breitbart, Johanna N. Riesel, Ute Bartels, George M. Ibrahim, and Abhaya V. Kulkarni

OBJECTIVE

Craniopharyngiomas with a predominant cystic component are often seen in children and can be treated with an Ommaya reservoir for aspiration and/or intracystic therapy. In some cases, cannulation of the cyst can be challenging via a stereotactic or transventricular endoscopic approach due to its size and proximity to critical structures. In such cases, a novel placement technique for Ommaya reservoirs via a lateral supraorbital incision and supraorbital minicraniotomy has been used.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all children undergoing supraorbital Ommaya reservoir insertion from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2022, at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The technique involves a lateral supraorbital incision and a 3 × 4–cm supraorbital craniotomy, with identification and fenestration of the cyst under the microscope and insertion of the catheter. The authors assessed baseline characteristics and clinical parameters of surgical treatment and outcome. Descriptive statistics were conducted. A review of the literature was performed to identify other studies describing a similar placement technique.

RESULTS

A total of 5 patients with cystic craniopharyngioma were included (3 male, 60%) with a mean age of 10.20 ± 5.72 years. The mean preoperative cyst size was 11.6 ± 3.7 cm3, and none of the patients suffered from hydrocephalus. All patients suffered from temporary postoperative diabetes insipidus, but no new permanent endocrine deficits were caused by the surgery. Cosmetic results were satisfactory.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first report of lateral supraorbital minicraniotomy for Ommaya reservoir placement. This is an effective and safe approach in patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas, which cause local mass effect but are not amenable to traditional Ommaya reservoir placement stereotactically or endoscopically.

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Comparison of outcomes in the management of abdominal pseudocyst in children with shunted hydrocephalus: a Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network study

Vijay M. Ravindra, Hailey Jensen, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John C. Wellons III, David D. Limbrick Jr., Jonathan Pindrik, Eric M. Jackson, Ian F. Pollack, Todd C. Hankinson, Jason S. Hauptman, Mandeep S. Tamber, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Brandon G. Rocque, Curtis Rozzelle, William E. Whitehead, Jason Chu, Mark D. Krieger, Tamara D. Simon, Ron Reeder, Patrick J. McDonald, Nichol Nunn, John R. W. Kestle, and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

Abdominal pseudocyst (APC) can cause distal site failure in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts and is specifically designated as an infection in Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) protocols. Specific management and outcomes of children with APCs have not been reported in a multicenter study. In this study, the authors investigated the management and outcomes of APC in children with shunted hydrocephalus who were treated at centers in the HCRN.

METHODS

The HCRN Registry was queried to identify children < 18 years old with shunts who were diagnosed with an APC (i.e., a loculated abdominal fluid collection containing the peritoneal catheter with abdominal distention and/or displacement of peritoneal contents). The primary outcome was shunt failure after APC treatment. The primary variable was reimplantation of the distal catheter after pseudocyst treatment back into the peritoneum versus implantation in a nonperitoneal site. Other risk factors for shunt failure after APC treatment and variability in APC management were investigated.

RESULTS

Among 141 children from 14 centers who underwent first-time management of an APC over a 14-year period, the median time from previous shunt surgery to APC diagnosis was 3.8 months. Overall, 17.7% of children had a positive culture: APC cultures were positive in 14.2% and CSF cultures in 15.6%. Six other children underwent shunt revision without removal; all underwent reoperation within 1 month. There was no difference in shunt survival (log-rank test, p = 0.42) or number of subsequent revisions within 6, 12, or 24 months for shunts reimplanted in the abdomen versus those implanted in a nonperitoneal location. Nonperitoneal implantation was associated with more noninfectious revisions (42.3% vs 22.9%, p = 0.019), whereas infection was more common after reimplantation in the abdomen (25.7% vs 7.0%, p = 0.003). Univariable analysis demonstrated that younger age at APC diagnosis (8.3 vs 12.2 years, p = 0.006) and prior shunt procedure within 12 weeks of APC diagnosis (59.5% vs 40.5%, p = 0.012) were associated with shunt failure after APC treatment. Multivariable modeling confirmed that prior shunt surgery within 12 weeks of APC diagnosis was independently associated with failure (HR 1.79 [95% CI 1.04–3.07], p = 0.035).

CONCLUSIONS

In the HCRN, APCs in the setting of CSF shunts are usually managed with externalization. Shunt surgery within 12 weeks of APC diagnosis was associated with risk of failure after APC treatment. Although no differences were found in overall shunt failure rate, noninfectious shunt revisions were more common in the nonperitoneal distal catheter sites, and infection was a more common reason for failure after reimplantation of the shunt in the abdomen.

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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in previously shunt-treated patients

Brandon G. Rocque, Hailey Jensen, Ron W. Reeder, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ian F. Pollack, John C. Wellons III, Robert P. Naftel, Eric M. Jackson, William E. Whitehead, Jonathan A. Pindrik, David D. Limbrick Jr., Patrick J. McDonald, Mandeep S. Tamber, Todd C. Hankinson, Jason S. Hauptman, Mark D. Krieger, Jason Chu, Tamara D. Simon, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Curtis J. Rozzelle, and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an option for treatment of hydrocephalus, including for patients who have a history of previous treatment with CSF shunt insertion. The purpose of this study was to report the success of postshunt ETV by using data from a multicenter prospective registry.

METHODS

Prospectively collected data in the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) Core Data Project (i.e., HCRN Registry) were reviewed. Children who underwent ETV between 2008 and 2019 and had a history of previous treatment with a CSF shunt were included. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was created for the primary outcome: time from postshunt ETV to subsequent CSF shunt placement or revision. Univariable Cox proportional hazards models were created to evaluate for an association between clinical and demographic variables and subsequent shunt surgery. Postshunt ETV complications were also identified and categorized.

RESULTS

A total of 203 children were included: 57% male and 43% female; 74% White, 23% Black, and 4% other race. The most common hydrocephalus etiologies were postintraventricular hemorrhage secondary to prematurity (56, 28%) and aqueductal stenosis (42, 21%). The ETV Success Score ranged from 10 to 80. The median patient age was 4.1 years. The overall success of postshunt ETV at 6 months was 41%. Only the surgeon’s report of a clear view of the basilar artery was associated with a lower likelihood of postshunt ETV failure (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23–0.82, p = 0.009). None of the following variables were associated with postshunt ETV success: age at the time of postshunt ETV, etiology of hydrocephalus, sex, race, ventricle size, number of previous shunt operations, ETV performed at time of shunt infection, and use of external ventricular drainage. Overall, complications were reported in 22% of patients, with CSF leak (8.6%) being the most common complication.

CONCLUSIONS

Postshunt ETV was successful in treating hydrocephalus, without subsequent need for a CSF shunt, in 41% of patients, with a clear view of the basilar artery being the only variable significantly associated with success. Complications occurred in 22% of patients. ETV is an option for treatment of hydrocephalus in children who have previously undergone shunt placement, but with a lower than expected likelihood of success.

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Nucleus accumbens: a systematic review of neural circuitry and clinical studies in healthy and pathological states

Han Yan, Nathan A. Shlobin, Youngkyung Jung, Kristina K. Zhang, Nebras Warsi, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, and George M. Ibrahim

OBJECTIVE

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of the ventral striatum is critically involved in goal- and reward-based behavior. Structural and functional abnormalities of the NAcc or its associated neural systems are involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Studies of neural circuitry have shed light on the subtleties of the structural and functional derangements of the NAcc across various diseases. In this systematic review, the authors sought to identify human studies involving the NAcc and provide a synthesis of the literature on the known circuity of the NAcc in healthy and diseased states, as well as the clinical outcomes following neuromodulation.

METHODS

A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. Neuroimaging studies that reported on neural circuitry related to the human NAcc with sample sizes greater than 5 patients were included. Demographic data, aim, design and duration, participants, and clinical and neurocircuitry details and outcomes of the studies were extracted.

RESULTS

Of 3591 resultant articles, 123 were included. The NAcc and its corticolimbic connections to other brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, are largely involved in reward and pain processes, with distinct functional circuitry between the shell and core in healthy patients. There is heterogeneity between clinical studies with regard to the NAcc indirect targeting coordinates, methods for postoperative confirmation, and blinded trial design. Neuromodulation studies provided promising clinical results in the context of addiction and substance misuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mood disorders. The most common complications were impaired memory or concentration, and a notable serious complication was hypomania.

CONCLUSIONS

The functional diversity of the NAcc highlights the importance of studying the NAcc in healthy and pathological states. The results of this review suggest that NAcc neuromodulation has been attempted in the management of diverse psychiatric indications. There is promising, emerging evidence that the NAcc may be an effective target for specific reward- or pain-based pathologies with a reasonable risk profile.

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Design and validation of a hemispherectomy simulator for neurosurgical education

Grace M. Thiong’o, Thomas Looi, James T. Rutka, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, and James M. Drake

OBJECTIVE

Early adaptors of surgical simulation have documented a translation to improved intraoperative surgical performance. Similar progress would boost neurosurgical education, especially in highly nuanced epilepsy surgeries. This study introduces a hands-on cerebral hemispheric surgery simulator and evaluates its usefulness in teaching epilepsy surgeries.

METHODS

Initially, the anatomical realism of the simulator and its perceived effectiveness as a training tool were evaluated by two epilepsy neurosurgeons. The surgeons independently simulated hemispherotomy procedures and provided questionnaire feedback. Both surgeons agreed on the anatomical realism and effectiveness of this training tool. Next, construct validity was evaluated by modeling the proficiency (task-completion time) of 13 participants, who spanned the experience range from novice to expert.

RESULTS

Poisson regression yielded a significant whole-model fit (χ2 = 30.11, p < 0.0001). The association between proficiency when using the training tool and the combined effect of prior exposure to hemispherotomy surgery and career span was statistically significant (χ2 = 7.30, p = 0.007); in isolation, pre-simulation exposure to hemispherotomy surgery (χ2 = 6.71, p = 0.009) and career length (χ2 = 14.21, p < 0.001) were also significant. The mean (± SD) task-completion time was 25.59 ± 9.75 minutes. Plotting career length against task-completion time provided insights on learning curves of epilepsy surgery. Prediction formulae estimated that 10 real-life hemispherotomy cases would be needed to approach the proficiency seen in experts.

CONCLUSIONS

The cerebral hemispheric surgery simulator is a reasonable epilepsy surgery training tool in the quest to increase preoperative practice opportunities for neurosurgical education.

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Hydrocephalus surveillance following CSF diversion: a modified Delphi study

David S. Hersh, Jonathan E. Martin, Ruth E. Bristol, Samuel R. Browd, Gerald Grant, Nalin Gupta, Todd C. Hankinson, Eric M. Jackson, John R. W. Kestle, Mark D. Krieger, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Casey J. Madura, Jonathan Pindrik, Ian F. Pollack, Jeffrey S. Raskin, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Jodi L. Smith, and John C. Wellons III

OBJECTIVE

Long-term follow-up is often recommended for patients with hydrocephalus, but the frequency of clinical follow-up, timing and modality of imaging, and duration of surveillance have not been clearly defined. Here, the authors used the modified Delphi method to identify areas of consensus regarding the modality, frequency, and duration of hydrocephalus surveillance following surgical treatment.

METHODS

Pediatric neurosurgeons serving as institutional liaisons to the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN), or its implementation/quality improvement arm (HCRNq), were invited to participate in this modified Delphi study. Thirty-seven consensus statements were generated and distributed via an anonymous electronic survey, with responses structured as a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). A subsequent, virtual meeting offered the opportunity for open discussion and modification of the statements in an effort to reach consensus (defined as ≥ 80% agreement or disagreement).

RESULTS

Nineteen pediatric neurosurgeons participated in the first round, after which 15 statements reached consensus. During the second round, 14 participants met virtually for review and discussion. Some statements were modified and 2 statements were combined, resulting in a total of 36 statements. At the conclusion of the session, consensus was achieved for 17 statements regarding the following: 1) the role of standardization; 2) preferred imaging modalities; 3) postoperative follow-up after shunt surgery (subdivided into immediate postoperative imaging, delayed postoperative imaging, routine clinical surveillance, and routine radiological surveillance); and 4) postoperative follow-up after an endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Consensus could not be achieved for 19 statements.

CONCLUSIONS

Using the modified Delphi method, 17 consensus statements were developed with respect to both clinical and radiological follow-up after a shunt or endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The frequency, modality, and duration of surveillance were addressed, highlighting areas in which no clear data exist to guide clinical practice. Although further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of hydrocephalus surveillance, the current study provides a framework to guide future efforts to develop standardized clinical protocols for the postoperative surveillance of patients with hydrocephalus. Ultimately, the standardization of hydrocephalus surveillance has the potential to improve patient care as well as optimize the use of healthcare resources.

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Endoscopic third ventriculostomy revision after failure of initial endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization

Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Hailey Jensen, Ron W. Reeder, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, Ian F. Pollack, John C. Wellons III, Robert P. Naftel, Eric M. Jackson, William E. Whitehead, Jonathan A. Pindrik, David D. Limbrick Jr., Patrick J. McDonald, Mandeep S. Tamber, Brent R. O’Neill, Jason S. Hauptman, Mark D. Krieger, Jason Chu, Tamara D. Simon, Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Brandon G. Rocque, and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

Primary treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) is well described in the neurosurgical literature, with wide reported ranges of success and complication rates. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure.

METHODS

Prospectively collected data in the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network Core Data Project registry were reviewed. Children who underwent ETV+CPC as the initial treatment for hydrocephalus between 2013 and 2019 and in whom the initial ETV+CPC was completed (i.e., not abandoned) were included. Log-rank survival analysis (the primary analysis) was used to compare time to failure (defined as any other surgical treatment for hydrocephalus or death related to hydrocephalus) of initial ETV+CPC versus that of ETV revision by using random-effects modeling to account for the inclusion of patients in both the initial and revision groups. Secondary analysis compared ETV revision to shunt placement after failure of initial ETV+CPC by using the log-rank test, as well as shunt failure after ETV+CPC to that after ETV revision. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of failure among children treated with ETV revision.

RESULTS

The authors identified 521 ETV+CPC procedures that met their inclusion criteria. Ninety-one children underwent ETV revision after ETV+CPC failure. ETV revision had a lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC (29.5% vs 45%, p < 0.001). ETV revision after initial ETV+CPC failure had a lower success rate than shunting (29.5% vs 77.8%, p < 0.001). Shunt survival after initial ETV+CPC failure was not significantly different from shunt survival after ETV revision failure (p = 0.963). Complication rates were similar for all examined surgical procedures (initial ETV+CPC, ETV revision, ventriculoperitoneal shunt [VPS] placement after ETV+CPC, and VPS placement after ETV revision). Only young age was predictive of ETV revision failure (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

ETV revision had a significantly lower 1-year success rate than initial ETV+CPC and VPS placement after ETV+CPC. Complication rates were similar for all studied procedures. Younger age, but not time since initial ETV+CPC, was a risk factor for ETV revision failure.