Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 19 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics x
  • Refine by Access: all x
  • By Author: Hwang, Steven W. x
Clear All
Full access

Brandon J. Toll, Amer F. Samdani, M. Burhan Janjua, Shashank Gandhi, Joshua M. Pahys, and Steven W. Hwang

OBJECTIVE

High rates of perioperative complications are associated with deformity correction in neuromuscular scoliosis. The current study aimed to evaluate complications associated with surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis and to characterize potential risk factors.

METHODS

Data were retrospectively collected from a single-center cohort of 102 consecutive patients who underwent spinal fusions for neuromuscular scoliosis between January 2008 and December 2016 and who had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. A subgroup analysis was performed on data from patients who had at least 2 years of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses, as well as binary correlational models and Student t-tests, were employed for further statistical analysis.

RESULTS

The present cohort had 53 boys and 49 girls with a mean age at surgery of 14.0 years (± 2.7 SD, range 7.5–19.5 years). The most prevalent diagnoses were cerebral palsy (26.5%), spinal cord injury (24.5%), and neurofibromatosis (10.8%). Analysis reflected an overall perioperative complication rate of 27% (37 complications in 27 patients), 81.1% of which constituted major complications (n = 30) compared to a rate of 18.9% for minor complications (n = 7). Complications were predicted by nonambulatory status (p = 0.037), increased intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.012), increased intraoperative time (p = 0.046), greater pelvic obliquity at follow-up (p = 0.028), and greater magnitude of sagittal profile at follow-up (p = 0.048). Pulmonary comorbidity (p = 0.001), previous operations (p = 0.013), history of seizures (p = 0.046), diagnosis of myelomeningocele (p = 0.046), increase in weight postoperatively (p < 0.005), and increased lumbar lordosis at follow-up (p = 0.015) were identified as risk factors for perioperative infection.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that in neuromuscular scoliosis, patients with preexisting pulmonary compromise and greater intraoperative blood loss have the greatest risk of experiencing a major perioperative complication following surgical deformity correction.

Full access

Guillermo Aldave, Daniel Hansen, Steven W. Hwang, Amee Moreno, Valentina Briceño, and Andrew Jea

OBJECTIVE

Tethered cord syndrome is the clinical manifestation of an abnormal stretch on the spinal cord, presumably causing mechanical injury, a compromised blood supply, and altered spinal cord metabolism. Tethered cord release is the standard treatment for tethered cord syndrome. However, direct untethering of the spinal cord carries potential risks, such as new neurological deficits from spinal cord injury, a CSF leak from opening the dura, and retethering of the spinal cord from normal scar formation after surgery. To avoid these risks, the authors applied spinal column shortening to children and transitional adults with primary and secondary tethered cord syndrome and report treatment outcomes. The authors' aim with this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of spinal column shortening for tethered cord syndrome by analyzing their experience with this surgical technique.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the demographic and procedural data of children and young adults who had undergone spinal column shortening for primary or secondary tethered cord syndrome.

RESULTS

Seven patients with tethered cord syndrome caused by myelomeningocele, lipomyelomeningocele, and transitional spinal lipoma were treated with spinal column shortening. One patient with less than 24 months of follow-up was excluded from further analysis. There were 3 males and 4 females; the average age at the time was surgery was 16 years (range 8–30 years). Clinical presentations for our patients included pain (in 5 patients), weakness (in 4 patients), and bowel/bladder dysfunction (in 4 patients). Spinal column osteotomy was most commonly performed at the L-1 level, with fusion between T-12 and L-2 using a pedicle screw-rod construct. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy was performed in 6 patients, and vertebral column resection was performed in 1 patient. The average follow-up period was 31 months (range 26–37 months). Computed tomography–based radiographic outcomes showed solid fusion and no instrumentation failure in all cases by the most recent follow-up. Five of 7 patients (71%) reported improvement in preoperative symptoms during the follow-up period. The mean differences in initial and most recent Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index scores were 0.26 and –13%, respectively; minimum clinically important difference in SRS-22 and ODI were assumed to be 0.4% and –12.8%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Spinal column shortening seems to represent a safe and efficacious alternative to traditional untethering of the spinal cord for tethered cord syndrome.

Full access

Charles E. Mackel, Patrick J. Cahill, Marie Roguski, Amer F. Samdani, Patrick A. Sugrue, Noriaki Kawakami, Peter F. Sturm, Joshua M. Pahys, Randal R. Betz, Ron El-Hawary, and Steven W. Hwang

OBJECTIVE

The authors performed a study to identify clinical characteristics of pediatric patients diagnosed with Chiari I malformation and scoliosis associated with a need for spinal fusion after posterior fossa decompression when managing the scoliotic curve.

METHODS

The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 44 patients, aged 18 years or younger, diagnosed with Chiari I malformation and scoliosis who underwent posterior fossa decompression from 2000 to 2010. The outcome of interest was the need for spinal fusion after decompression.

RESULTS

Overall, 18 patients (40%) underwent posterior fossa decompression alone, and 26 patients (60%) required a spinal fusion after the decompression. The mean Cobb angle at presentation and the proportion of patients with curves > 35° differed between the decompression-only and fusion cohorts (30.7° ± 11.8° vs 52.1° ± 26.3°, p = 0.002; 5 of 18 vs 17 of 26, p = 0.031). An odds ratio of 1.0625 favoring a need for fusion was established for each 1° of increase in Cobb angle (p = 0.012, OR 1.0625, 95% CI 1.0135–1.1138). Among the 14 patients older than 10 years of age with a primary Cobb angle exceeding 35°, 13 (93%) ultimately required fusion. Patients with at least 1 year of follow-up whose curves progressed more 10° after decompression were younger than those without curve progression (6.1 ± 3.0 years vs 13.7 ± 3.2 years, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Left apical thoracic curves constituted a higher proportion of curves in the decompression-only group (8 of 16 vs 1 of 21, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

The need for fusion after posterior fossa decompression reflected the curve severity at clinical presentation. Patients presenting with curves measuring > 35°, as well as those greater than 10 years of age, may be at greater risk for requiring fusion after posterior fossa decompression, while patients less than 10 years of age may require routine monitoring for curve progression. Left apical thoracic curves may have a better response to Chiari malformation decompression.

Full access

Christina Sayama, Matthew Willsey, Murali Chintagumpala, Alison Brayton, Valentina Briceño, Sheila L. Ryan, Thomas G. Luerssen, Steven W. Hwang, and Andrew Jea

OBJECT

The aim of this study was to determine the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein–2 (rhBMP-2) use in posterior instrumented fusions in the pediatric population, focusing on cancer risk. In a previous study, the authors reported the short-term (mean follow-up of 11 months) safety and efficacy of rhBMP-2 in the pediatric age group. The present study reports their results with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed 57 consecutive cases involving pediatric patients who underwent posterior occiptocervical, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or lumbosacral spine fusion from October 1, 2007, to June 30, 2011, at Texas Children's Hospital. Seven cases were excluded from further analysis because of loss to follow-up. Three patients died during the follow-up period and were placed in a separate cohort.

RESULTS

The patients' average age at the time of surgery was 11 years, 4 months (range 9 months to 20 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 48.4 months (range 24–70 months). Cancer status was determined at the most recent encounter with the patient and/or caretaker(s) in person, or in telephone follow-up. Twenty-four or more months after administration of rhBMP-2, there were no cases of new malignancy, degeneration, or metastasis of existing tumors. The cause of death of the patients who died during the study period was not related to BMP or to the development, degeneration, or metastasis of cancer.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the large number of adult studies reporting increased cancer risk associated with BMP use, the authors' outcomes with rhBMP-2 in the pediatric population suggest that it is a safe adjunct to posterior spine fusions of the occipitocervical, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and lumbosacral spine. There were no new cases of cancer, or degeneration or metastasis of existing malignancies in this series.

Restricted access

Joseph Ferguson, Steven W. Hwang, Zachary Tataryn, and Amer F. Samdani

Object

Intraoperative monitoring of the spinal cord has become the standard of care during surgery for pediatric spinal deformity correction. The use of both somatosensory and motor evoked potentials has dramatically increased the sensitivity and specificity of detecting intraoperative neurophysiological changes to the spinal cord, which assists in the intraoperative decision-making process. The authors report on a large, single-center experience with neuromonitoring changes and outline the surgical management of patients who experience significant neuromonitoring changes during spinal deformity correction surgery.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective review of all cases involving pediatric patients who underwent spinal deformity correction surgery at Shriners Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, between January 2007 and March 2010. Five hundred nineteen consecutive cases were reviewed in which neuromonitoring was used, with 47 cases being identified as having significant changes in somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, or both. These cases were reviewed for patient demographic data and surgical characteristics.

Results

The incidence of significant neuromonitoring changes was 9.1% (47 of 519 cases), including 6 cases of abnormal Stagnara wake-up tests, of which 4 had corroborated postoperative neurological deficits (8.5% of 47 cases, 0.8% of 519). In response to neuromonitoring changes, wake-up tests were performed in 37 (79%) of 47 cases, hardware was adjusted in 15 (32%), anesthesiology interventions were reported in 5 (11%), hardware was removed in 5 (11%), the patient was successfully repositioned in 3 (6%), and the procedure was aborted in 13 (28%). In 1 of the 4 patients with new postoperative deficits, the deficit had fully resolved by the last follow-up; the other 3 patients had persistent neurological impairment as of the most recent follow-up examination. The authors observed a sensitivity of 100% for intraoperative neuromonitoring.

Conclusions

Due to the profound risks associated with spinal deformity surgery, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is an integral tool to warn of impending spinal cord injury. Intraoperative neuromonitoring appears to provide a safe and useful warning mechanism to minimize spinal cord injury that may arise during scoliosis correction surgery in pediatric patients.

Restricted access

Loyola V. Gressot, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Steven W. Hwang, Daniel H. Fulkerson, Thomas G. Luerssen, and Andrew Jea

Object

Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition that results from a pars interarticularis defect. The C-6 level is the most frequently involved site in the cervical spine. Its clinical presentations range from incidental radiographic findings to neck pain and, rarely, neurological deficits. Although 150 patients with subaxial cervical spondylolysis have been reported, a mere 24 adult and pediatric patients with C-2 spondylolysis have been described. The long-term outcomes of very young children with bilateral C-2 spondylolysis are of great interest, yet only a few longitudinal studies exist.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of bilateral C-2 spondylolysis at Texas Children's Hospital and Riley Children's Hospital; these were combined with 5 other cases in the literature, yielding a total of 10 patients. Data regarding the patients' age, sex, C2–3 angulation and displacement, associated spine anomalies, neurological deficits, treatment, and most recent follow-up were recorded.

Results

The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 36 months (mean 12.9 months). There were 6 boys and 4 girls. The C2–3 angulation, displacement, and width of pars defect were measured when available. The mean C2–3 angulation was 9.5° (range 1–34°), the mean C2–3 displacement was 4.78 mm (range 1.1–10.8 mm), and the mean width of the pars defect was 4.16 mm (range 0.9–7 mm). One patient developed myelopathy and spinal cord injury. All 10 of the patients were treated initially with conservative therapy: 3 with close observation alone, 1 with a rigid cervical collar, 4 with a Minerva jacket, 1 with a sternal-occipital-mandibular immobilizer, and 1 with a halo vest. Three patients ultimately underwent surgery for internal fixation due to progressive instability or development of neurological symptoms. All patients were neurologically intact at the last follow-up (mean 44.3 months, range 14–120 months).

Conclusions

Based on the literature and the authors' own experience, they conclude that most very young children with C-2 spondylolysis remain neurologically intact and maintain stability in long-term follow-up despite the bony defect. This defect is often an asymptomatic incidental finding and may be managed conservatively. More aggressive therapy including surgery is indicated for those patients with a neurological deficit from spinal cord compromise secondary to stenosis and local C-2 kyphosis, progressive deformity, or worsening C2–3 instability.

Restricted access

Loyola V. Gressot, Akash J. Patel, Steven W. Hwang, Daniel H. Fulkerson, and Andrew Jea

Object

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a challenging pathology to treat. Surgical correction can involve long fusion constructs extending to the pelvis. The deformity inherent in these patients makes it difficult to obtain adequate lateral intraoperative radiographs for traditional image-guided placement of iliac screws.

Methods

A clinical and radiographic assessment of 14 patients with neuromuscular spinal deformity was conducted. From 2007 to 2013, 12 of these patients (mean age 14.25 years, range 10–20 years) underwent long spinal instrumentation (mean 15 levels, range 10–18 levels) and fusion to the pelvis, and 2 underwent placement of a growing rod construct with iliac screw placement at a single institution. The average length of follow-up was 33.7 months (range 6–64 months). Iliac screws were placed after identifying the posterior superior iliac spine and using only anteroposterior fluoroscopy (view of the inlet of the pelvis), rather than the technique of direct palpation of the sciatic notch. The accuracy of iliac screw placement was assessed with routine postoperative CT.

Results

A total of 12 patients had 24 screws placed as part of a long-segment fusion to the pelvis, and 2 patients had two iliac screws placed as part of a growing rod construct for neuromuscular scoliosis. There were no iliac screw misplacements, and no complications directly related to the technique of iliac screw placement. For cases of definitive fusion (n = 12), the average coronal Cobb angle of patients with neuromuscular spinal deformity measured 62° before surgery and 44.3° immediately after surgery. The average preoperative thoracic kyphosis and lumbar sagittal lordosis measured 37.3° and 60.7°, respectively. Immediately after surgery, the thoracic and lumbar angles measured 30° and 41.1°, respectively. At last follow-up, the average coronal Cobb angle was maintained at 45.1°, and the thoracic and lumbar sagittal angles were maintained at 32.8° and 45.3°, respectively.

Conclusions

A less invasive technique for iliac screw placement can be performed safely with a low likelihood of screw misplacement. This technique offers the biomechanical advantages of iliac fixation without the soft tissue exposure typically needed for safe screw insertion. The technique relies on identification of the posterior superior iliac spine and high quality anteroposterior fluoroscopic imaging for a view of the pelvic inlet.

Restricted access

Mark Henry, Katherine Scarlata, Ron I. Riesenburger, James Kryzanski, Leslie Rideout, Amer Samdani, Andrew Jea, and Steven W. Hwang

Object

Although MRI with short-term T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequencing has been widely adopted in the clearance of cervical spine in adults who have sustained trauma, its applicability for cervical spine clearance in pediatric trauma patients remains unclear. The authors sought to review a Level 1 trauma center's experience using MRI for posttraumatic evaluation of the cervical spine in pediatric patients.

Methods

A pediatric trauma database was retrospectively queried for patients who received an injury warranting radiographic imaging of the cervical spine and had a STIR-MRI sequence of the cervical spine performed within 48 hours of injury between 2002 and 2011. Demographic, radiographic, and outcome data were retrospectively collected through medical records.

Results

Seventy-three cases were included in the analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 months (range 4 days–7 years). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma evaluation was 8.3 ± 5.8 years, and 65% were male. The majority of patients were involved in a motor vehicle accident. In 70 cases, the results of MRI studies were negative, and the patients were cleared prior to discharge with no clinical suggestion of instability on follow-up. In 3 cases, the MRI studies had abnormal findings; 2 of these 3 patients were cleared with dynamic radiographs during the same admission. Only 1 patient had an unstable injury and required surgical stabilization. The sensitivity of STIR MRI to detect cervical instability was 100% with a specificity of 97%. The positive predictive value was 33% and the negative predictive value was 100%.

Conclusions

Although interpretation of our results are diminished by limitations of the study, in our series, STIR MRI in routine screening for pediatric cervical trauma had a high sensitivity and slightly lower specificity, but may have utility in future practices and should be considered for implementation into protocols.

Restricted access

Rory R. Mayer, Steven W. Hwang, Gaddum D. Reddy, David L. Morales, William E. Whitehead, Daniel J. Curry, Robert J. Bollo, Thomas G. Luerssen, and Andrew Jea

Object

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are continuous or pulsatile flow devices that could potentially be life-saving measures for patients with end-stage heart failure. These devices have clear advantages over extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and are often used in adults. They are only recently being commonly used in the pediatric age group. As the use of LVADs becomes more mainstream in children, it is important to determine the complication profile associated with these devices. Furthermore, with the increasing application of LVADs in children, pediatric neurosurgeons are seeing a correlative increase in associated neurological complications. In this study, the authors reviewed the incidence of neurological complications due to LVAD use in the pediatric age group and the role of neurosurgery in treatment.

Methods

The authors examined data regarding patients with LVADs from the Texas Children's Hospital Heart Center database (July 01, 2007, to June 30, 2011) and recorded neurological complications requiring neurosurgical consultation. They identified 2 children who underwent craniotomies during LVAD treatment.

Results

Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 3 (6.5%) of the 46 patients treated with an LVAD at the authors' institution. Of these patients, 2 were treated with craniotomies for life-threatening intracranial hemorrhages. The 3 patients in the neurosurgical cohort presented with cerebral infarction, decreased level of consciousness, and/or seizure. At the last follow-up (286, 503, and 550 days), 1 patient (Case 2) had no decline in neurological status, underwent a successful heart transplant, and was discharged home; 1 patient (Case 1) died of refractory cardiac failure; and 1 patient (Case 3) was on an LVAD for destination therapy (that is, the LVAD is not a bridge to transplantation but rather the final treatment). This patient was discharged from the hospital, but he died of overwhelming fungemia at 286 days while on VAD support.

Conclusions

Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious and feared complication of LVAD treatment. While the surgical risk is substantial due to systemic anticoagulation and significant medical comorbidities, neurosurgical evacuation of hemorrhage plays an important life-saving role that can yield successful and acceptable outcomes.