High rates of perioperative complications are associated with deformity correction in neuromuscular scoliosis. The current study aimed to evaluate complications associated with surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis and to characterize potential risk factors.
Data were retrospectively collected from a single-center cohort of 102 consecutive patients who underwent spinal fusions for neuromuscular scoliosis between January 2008 and December 2016 and who had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. A subgroup analysis was performed on data from patients who had at least 2 years of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses, as well as binary correlational models and Student t-tests, were employed for further statistical analysis.
The present cohort had 53 boys and 49 girls with a mean age at surgery of 14.0 years (± 2.7 SD, range 7.5–19.5 years). The most prevalent diagnoses were cerebral palsy (26.5%), spinal cord injury (24.5%), and neurofibromatosis (10.8%). Analysis reflected an overall perioperative complication rate of 27% (37 complications in 27 patients), 81.1% of which constituted major complications (n = 30) compared to a rate of 18.9% for minor complications (n = 7). Complications were predicted by nonambulatory status (p = 0.037), increased intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.012), increased intraoperative time (p = 0.046), greater pelvic obliquity at follow-up (p = 0.028), and greater magnitude of sagittal profile at follow-up (p = 0.048). Pulmonary comorbidity (p = 0.001), previous operations (p = 0.013), history of seizures (p = 0.046), diagnosis of myelomeningocele (p = 0.046), increase in weight postoperatively (p < 0.005), and increased lumbar lordosis at follow-up (p = 0.015) were identified as risk factors for perioperative infection.
These results suggest that in neuromuscular scoliosis, patients with preexisting pulmonary compromise and greater intraoperative blood loss have the greatest risk of experiencing a major perioperative complication following surgical deformity correction.