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Kevin Gibbons, Leo N. Hopkins, and Roberto C. Heros

✓ Two cases are presented in which clip occlusion of a third distal anterior cerebral artery segment occurred during treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Case histories, angiograms, operative descriptions, and postmortem findings are presented. The incidence of this anomalous vessel is reviewed. Preoperative and intraoperative vigilance in determining the presence of this anomaly prior to clip placement is emphasized.

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Kazuyoshi Korosue, Roberto C. Heros, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Akio Hyodo, Yong-Kwang Tu, and Robert Graichen

✓ Forty dogs were subjected to 6 hours of occlusion of the left internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries. They were divided into two “hemodilution groups” of 13 dogs each and a control “nonhemodiluted group” of 14 dogs. Thirty minutes after arterial occlusion, isovolemic hemodilution was performed by phlebotomy and infusions of low-molecular weight (MW) dextran in one group and of lactated Ringer's solution in the other group. The animals were sacrificed 1 week after temporary arterial occlusion.

Hemodilution reduced the hematocrit to a level of 33% to 34%, which lasted throughout the week in both groups. After hemodilution there was a very significant reduction in blood viscosity, plasma total protein content, and fibrinogen levels in both groups in the acute stage; these levels gradually returned to baseline by the end of the week. In the group with lactated Ringer's solution hemodilution, both osmotic and oncotic pressures were decreased by hemodilution in the acute stage. In the control and low-MW dextran groups, osmotic and oncotic pressure remained unaltered throughout the week. Hemodilution resulted in a slight decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in all groups in the acute stage, but there were no significant changes in central venous, pulmonary arterial, or pulmonary wedge pressures. During the week of study, there were no differences in the cardiac index and total blood volume between the groups, and no significant changes in hematological parameters with the exception of a slight increase in bleeding time immediately after hemodilution with low-MW dextran.

Daily neurological assessment showed consistently poorer condition during the first 5 days in the group with lactated Ringer's solution compared to either the control group or the group receiving low-MW dextran. Based on Mann-Whitney U-testing, the infarct volume of the lactated Ringer's solution recipients, expressed as a percentage of the total volume of that hemisphere (median 15.7%, range 6.6% to 25.2%) was significantly larger than that of the group receiving low-MW dextran (median 2.2%, range 0% to 15.8%) and that of the control group (median 11.9%, range 0% to 39.9%). The results indicate that, in this model, hemodilution with colloids was beneficial, whereas hemodilution with crystalloids was deleterious. It is likely that the decrease in oncotic pressure observed after hemodilution with lactated Ringer's solution is one of the most important reasons for its detrimental effect.

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Alisa D. Gean, John Pile-Spellman, and Roberto C. Heros

✓ The advent of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has marked a new era in neuroimaging — particularly in terms of diminishing the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures. A cautionary note should be sounded, however, about an important limitation of standard spin-echo MR studies. Two patients were referred for angiography because MR imaging indicated the presence of a “paraclinoid aneurysm.” In retrospect, these findings were due instead to a pneumatized anterior clinoid. Angiography could have been avoided had this pitfall been recognized, and had a gradient-echo flow-imaging protocol been utilized. This latter approach (which does not replace spin-echo imaging) is more sensitive to flowing blood and thus allows differentiation of an air space from a nonthrombosed aneurysm.

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Christopher S. Ogilvy, Roberto C. Heros, Robert G. Ojemann, and Paul F. New

✓ Eight cases of histopathologically proven arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) which were not visualized on angiography are presented. As is typical with these lesions, most of the patients in this series presented with hemorrhage, seizures, or episodic or progressive neurological symptoms suggestive of a neoplasm. The diagnosis of angiographically occult AVM was highly suspected preoperatively in each case based on the combination of computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings. The CT scans in all cases showed moderately hyperdense lesions which enhanced mildly or moderately in a nonhomogeneous pattern with administration of contrast material. The MR image showed one or more bright areas interspersed with areas of low or absent signal peripherally or centrally on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The AVM was totally excised in seven patients and partially excised in one patient, with favorable results in all. The clinical management and differential diagnosis of angiographically occult AVM's are discussed. In patients with a clinical course and radiological studies suggestive of an occult AVM, removal of the lesion, if accessible, should be performed in order to rule out a neoplasm and prevent subsequent hemorrhage and progression of symptoms.

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Isovolemic hemodilution in experimental focal cerebral ischemia

Part 1: Effects on hemodynamics, hemorheology, and intracranial pressure

Yong-Kwang Tu, Roberto C. Heros, Guillermo Candia, Akio Hyodo, Karen Lagree, Ronald Callahan, Nicholas T. Zervas, and Dimitris Karacostas

✓ A total of 76 splenectomized dogs were entered in a study of the value and effects of isovolemic hemodilution. Of these, seven were not included in the analysis because of technical errors. Of the remaining 69 dogs, 35 were treated with hemodilution; 28 were subjected to a 6-hour period of temporary occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral artery, and seven underwent a sham operation only, with arterial manipulation but no occlusion. The other 34 dogs were not subjected to hemodilution; 26 of these underwent temporary arterial occlusion and eight had a sham operation only. In each group the animals were about equally divided into 1) an acute protocol with regional cerebral blood flow measurements by a radioactive microsphere technique and sacrifice at the end of the acute experiment, and 2) a chronic protocol with survival for 1 week to permit daily neurological assessment and final histopathological examination but without blood flow measurements. Isovolemic hemodilution was performed about 1 hour after the arterial occlusion or sham operation and was accomplished by phlebotomy and infusions of low molecular weight dextran to bring the hematocrit to a level of 30% to 32%. This treatment resulted in a very significant reduction in viscosity and fibrinogen levels. The decrease in hematocrit lasted throughout the week in the animals in the chronic protocol. The decrease in viscosity correlated almost linearly with the decrease in hematocrit. There was a slight decrease in systemic arterial pressure with hemodilution but there were no significant changes in central venous pressure or in pulmonary arterial or wedge pressure. There was a slight decrease in cardiac index in both the hemodilution and control groups, which may have been due to the effects of barbiturate anesthesia. There was a slight increase in the measured blood volume in both groups, which was probably artifactual and related to the method of calculation. Intracranial pressure increased significantly with time in all animals subjected to arterial occlusion, but this increase was less severe in the hemodilution group. There was no significant change in intracranial pressure in sham-operated animals, whether hemodiluted or not. The results of cerebral blood flow measurements, assessment of neurological condition, and measurement of infarct size are given in Part 2 of this report.

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Isovolemic hemodilution in experimental focal cerebral ischemia

Part 2: Effects on regional cerebral blood flow and size of infarction

Yong-Kwang Tu, Roberto C. Heros, Dimitris Karacostas, Ted Liszczak, Akio Hyodo, Guillermo Candia, Nicholas T. Zervas, and Karen Lagree

✓ Seventy-six splenectomized dogs were entered in a study of the value and effects of isovolemic hemodilution. Of these, seven were not included in the analysis because of technical errors. Of the remaining 69 dogs, 35 were treated with hemodilution; 28 were subjected to a 6-hour period of temporary occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral artery, and seven underwent a sham operation only, with arterial manipulation but no occlusion. The other 34 dogs were not subjected to hemodilution; 26 of these underwent temporary arterial occlusion and eight had a sham operation only. In each group the animals were about equally divided into 1) an acute protocol with regional cerebral blood flow measurements by a radioactive microsphere technique and sacrifice at the end of the acute experiment, and 2) a chronic protocol with survival for 1 week to permit daily neurological assessment and final histopathological examination but without blood flow measurements. The general experimental protocol, the hemodynamic and rheological measurements, and the changes in intracranial pressure are described in Part 1 of this report.

In the animals with arterial occlusion, blood flow decreased significantly in the territory of the ischemic middle cerebral artery. This decrease was partially reversed by hemodilution in the animals so treated. When the changes in blood flow before and after hemodilution in treated animals are compared with the changes at equivalent times in animals without hemodilution, the increases in flow in the gray matter of the ischemic hemisphere brought about by hemodilution are statistically significant. The neurological condition of the animals in the chronic protocol (sacrificed 1 week after occlusion) with hemodilution, as evaluated by daily neurological assessment, was significantly better than that of the control animals.

In the animals sacrificed acutely (8 hours after arterial occlusion), the volume of infarction as estimated by the tetrazolium chloride histochemical method was 7.36% of the total hemispheric volume in the control animals and 1.09% in the hemodiluted animals, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.005). In the chronic animals these values were 9.84% and 1.26%, respectively (p < 0.005), as calculated by fluorescein staining. By histopathological examination the volume of infarction in the chronic animals was calculated as 10.92% in the control animals and 1.20% in the hemodiluted animals (p < 0.005). There was good correlation between the size of infarction and the decrease in hematocrit and viscosity, and excellent correlation between the size of infarction estimated by fluorescein and that determined by histopathological examination in each animal in the chronic group.