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Scott L. Zuckerman, Hani Chanbour, Fthimnir M. Hassan, Christopher S. Lai, Yong Shen, Nathan J. Lee, Mena G. Kerolus, Alex S. Ha, Ian A. Buchanan, Eric Leung, Meghan Cerpa, Ronald A. Lehman Jr., and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

When treating patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), radiographic measurements evaluating coronal alignment above C7 are lacking. The current objectives were to: 1) describe the new orbital–coronal vertical axis (ORB-CVA) line that evaluates coronal alignment from cranium to sacrum, 2) assess correlation with other radiographic variables, 3) evaluate correlations with patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and 4) compare the ORB-CVA with the standard C7-CVA.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of patients with ASD from a single institution was undertaken. Traditional C7-CVA measurements were obtained. The ORB-CVA was defined as the distance between the central sacral vertical line and the vertical line from the midpoint between the medial orbital walls. The ORB-CVA was correlated using traditional coronal measurements, including C7-CVA, maximum coronal Cobb angle, pelvic obliquity, leg length discrepancy (LLD), and coronal malalignment (CM), defined as a C7-CVA > 3 cm. Clinical improvement was analyzed as: 1) group means, 2) minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and 3) minimal symptom scale (MSS) (Oswestry Disability Index < 20 or Scoliosis Research Society–22r Instrument [SRS-22r] pain + function domains > 8).

RESULTS

A total of 243 patients underwent ASD surgery, and 175 had a 2-year follow-up. Of the 243 patients, 90 (37%) had preoperative CM. The mean (range) ORB-CVA at each time point was as follows: preoperatively, 2.9 ± 3.1 cm (−14.2 to 25.6 cm); 1 year postoperatively, 2.0 ± 1.6 cm (−12.4 to 6.7 cm); and 2 years postoperatively, 1.8 ± 1.7 cm (−6.0 to 11.1 cm) (p < 0.001 from preoperatively to 1 and 2 years). Preoperative ORB-CVA correlated best with C7-CVA (r = 0.842, p < 0.001), maximum coronal Cobb angle (r = 0.166, p = 0.010), pelvic obliquity (r = 0.293, p < 0.001), and LLD (r = 0.158, p = 0.006). Postoperatively, the ORB-CVA correlated only with C7-CVA (r = 0.629, p < 0.001) and LLD (r = 0.153, p = 0.017). Overall, 155 patients (63.8%) had an ORB-CVA that was ≥ 5 mm different from C7-CVA. The ORB-CVA correlated as well and sometimes better than C7-CVA with SRS-22r subdomains. After multivariate logistic regression, a greater ORB-CVA was associated with increased odds of complication, whereas C7-CVA was not associated with any of the three clinical outcomes (complication, readmission, reoperation). A larger difference between the ORB-CVA and C7-CVA was significantly associated with readmission and reoperation after univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A threshold of ≥ 1.5-cm difference between the preoperative ORB-CVA and C7-CVA was found to be predictive of poorer outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

The ORB-CVA correlated well with known coronal measurements and PROs. ORB-CVA was independently associated with increased odds of complication, whereas C7-CVA was not associated with any outcomes. A ≥ 1.5-cm difference between the preoperative ORB-CVA and C7-CVA was found to be predictive of poorer outcomes.

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Cole Morrissette, Paul J. Park, Meghan Cerpa, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the mental health domain of the refined 22-item Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Questionnaire (SRS) and various postoperative outcome measures in the adult spinal deformity (ASD) population. Given the scale and involved nature of deformity surgery, some surgeons have proposed that preoperative mental health scores (MHSs) may assist in screening out poor surgical candidates. In this study, the authors aimed to further assess the SRS MHS as a preoperative metric and its association with postoperative outcomes and to comment on its potential use in patient selection and optimization for ASD surgery.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone primary or revision ASD surgery at a single academic institution between 2015 and 2019. Each patient had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were categorized on the basis of their baseline mental health per the SRS mental health domain, with a score < 4 indicating low baseline mental health (LMH) and a score ≥ 4 indicating high baseline mental health (HMH). Baseline and follow-up SRS and Oswestry Disability Index scores, surgical procedures, lengths of stay, discharge locations, intraoperative or postoperative complications, and other outcome metrics were then compared between the HMH and LMH groups, as well as these groups stratified by an age ≤ 45 and > 45 years.

RESULTS

Among patients aged ≤ 45 and those aged > 45, the LMH group had significantly worse baseline health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) metrics in nearly all domains. The LMH group also had an increased median estimated blood loss (EBL; 1200 vs 800 ml, p = 0.0026) and longer average surgical duration (8.3 ± 2.8 vs 6.9 ± 2.6 hours, p = 0.014). Both LMH and HMH groups had significant improvements in nearly all HRQOL measures postoperatively. Despite their worse preoperative HRQOL baseline, patients in the LMH group actually improved the most and reached the same HRQOL endpoints as those in the HMH group.

CONCLUSIONS

While patients with lower baseline MHSs may require slightly longer hospital courses or more frequent discharges to rehabilitation facilities, these patients actually attain greater absolute improvements from their preoperative baseline and surprisingly have the same postoperative HRQOL metrics as the patients with high MHSs, despite their poorer starting point. This finding suggests that patients with LMH may be uniquely positioned to substantially benefit from surgical intervention and improve their HRQOL scores and thus should be considered for ASD surgery to an extent similar to patients with HMH.

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Christopher S. Lai, Yong Shen, Meghan Cerpa, Nathan J. Lee, Mena G. Kerolus, Alex S. Ha, Ian A. Buchanan, Eric Leung, Ronald A. Lehman, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

This study had 3 objectives: 1) to describe pelvic obliquity (PO) and leg-length discrepancy (LLD) and their relationship with coronal malalignment (CM); 2) to report rates of isolated PO and PO secondary to LLD; and 3) to assess the importance of preoperative PO and LLD in postoperative complications, readmission, reoperation, and patient-reported outcomes.

METHODS

Patients undergoing surgery (≥ 6-level fusions) for adult spinal deformity at a single institution were reviewed. Variables evaluated were as follows: 1) PO, angle between the horizontal plane and a line touching bilateral iliac crests; and 2) LLD, distance from the head to the tibial plafond. Coronal vertical axis (CVA) and sagittal vertical axis measurements were collected, both from C7. The cutoff for CM was CVA > 3 cm. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was collected preoperatively and at 2 years.

RESULTS

Of 242 patients undergoing surgery for adult spinal deformity, 90 (37.0%) had preoperative CM. Patients with preoperative CM had a higher PO (2.8° ± 3.2° vs 2.0° ± 1.7°, p = 0.013), a higher percentage of patients with PO > 3° (35.6% vs 23.5%, p = 0.044), and higher a percentage of patients with LLD > 1 cm (21.1% vs 9.8%, p = 0.014). Whereas preoperative PO was significantly positively correlated with CVA (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) and maximum Cobb angle (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), preoperative LLD was only significantly correlated with CVA (r = 0.14, p = 0.035). A total of 12.2% of patients with CM had significant PO and LLD, defined as follows: PO ≥ 3°; LLD ≥ 1 cm. Postoperatively, preoperative PO was significantly associated with both postoperative CM (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05–1.40, p = 0.008) and postoperative CVA (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.06–0.22, p < 0.001). A higher preoperative PO was independently associated with postoperative complications after multivariate logistic regression (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05–1.45, p = 0.010); however, 2-year ODI scores were not. Preoperative LLD had no significant relationship with postoperative CM, CVA, ODI, or complications.

CONCLUSIONS

A PO ≥ 3° or LLD ≥ 1 cm was seen in 44.1% of patients with preoperative CM and in 23.5% of patients with normal coronal alignment. Preoperative PO was significantly associated with preoperative CVA and maximum Cobb angle, whereas preoperative LLD was only associated with preoperative CVA. The direction of PO and LLD showed no consistent pattern with CVA. Preoperative PO was independently associated with complications but not with 2-year ODI scores.

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Christopher S. Lai, Yong Shen, Nathan J. Lee, Mena G. Kerolus, Alex S. Ha, Ian A. Buchanan, Eric Leung, Meghan Cerpa, Ronald A. Lehman, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objectives were: 1) to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of iatrogenic coronal malalignment (CM), and 2) to assess the outcomes of patients with all three types of postoperative CM (iatrogenic vs unchanged/worsened vs improved but persistent).

METHODS

A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who underwent > 6-level fusion from 2015 to 2019. Iatrogenic CM was defined as immediate postoperative C7 coronal vertical axis (CVA) ≥ 3 cm in patients with preoperative CVA < 3 cm. Additional subcategories of postoperative CM were unchanged/worsened CM, which was defined as immediate postoperative CVA within 0.5 cm of or worse than preoperative CVA, and improved but persistent CM, which was defined as immediate postoperative CVA that was at least 0.5 cm better than preoperative CVA but still ≥ 3 cm; both groups included only patients with preoperative CM. Immediate postoperative radiographs were obtained when the patient was discharged from the hospital after surgery. Demographic, radiographic, and operative variables were collected. Outcomes included major complications, readmissions, reoperations, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and univariate logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis.

RESULTS

In this study, 243 patients were included, and the mean ± SD age was 49.3 ± 18.3 years and the mean number of instrumented levels was 13.5 ± 3.9. The mean preoperative CVA was 2.9 ± 2.7 cm. Of 153/243 patients without preoperative CM (CVA < 3 cm), 13/153 (8.5%) had postoperative iatrogenic CM. In total, 43/243 patients (17.7%) had postoperative CM: iatrogenic CM (13/43 [30.2%]), unchanged/worsened CM (19/43 [44.2%]), and improved but persistent CM (11/43 [25.6%]). Significant risk factors associated with iatrogenic CM were anxiety/depression (OR 3.54, p = 0.04), greater preoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (OR 1.13, p = 0.007), greater preoperative pelvic obliquity (OR 1.41, p = 0.019), lumbosacral fractional (LSF) curve concavity to the same side of the CVA (OR 11.67, p = 0.020), maximum Cobb concavity opposite the CVA (OR 3.85, p = 0.048), and three-column osteotomy (OR 4.34, p = 0.028). In total, 12/13 (92%) iatrogenic CM patients had an LSF curve concavity to the same side as the CVA. Among iatrogenic CM patients, mean pelvic obliquity was 3.1°, 4 (31%) patients had pelvic obliquity > 3°, mean preoperative absolute SVA was 8.0 cm, and 7 (54%) patients had preoperative sagittal malalignment. Patients with iatrogenic CM were more likely to sustain a major complication during the 2-year postoperative period than patients without iatrogenic CM (12% vs 33%, p = 0.046), yet readmission, reoperation, and PROs were similar.

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative iatrogenic CM occurred in 9% of ASD patients with preoperative normal coronal alignment (CVA < 3 cm). ASD patients who were most at risk for iatrogenic CM included those with preoperative sagittal malalignment, increased pelvic obliquity, LSF curve concavity to the same side as the CVA, and maximum Cobb angle concavity opposite the CVA, as well as those who underwent a three-column osteotomy. Despite sustaining more major complications, iatrogenic CM patients did not have increased risk of readmission, reoperation, or worse PROs.

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Scott L. Zuckerman, Christopher S. Lai, Yong Shen, Nathan J. Lee, Mena G. Kerolus, Alex S. Ha, Ian A. Buchanan, Eric Leung, Meghan Cerpa, Ronald A. Lehman, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objectives were: 1) to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of iatrogenic coronal malalignment (CM), and 2) to assess the outcomes of patients with all three types of postoperative CM (iatrogenic vs unchanged/worsened vs improved but persistent).

METHODS

A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed on adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who underwent > 6-level fusion from 2015 to 2019. Iatrogenic CM was defined as immediate postoperative C7 coronal vertical axis (CVA) ≥ 3 cm in patients with preoperative CVA < 3 cm. Additional subcategories of postoperative CM were unchanged/worsened CM, which was defined as immediate postoperative CVA within 0.5 cm of or worse than preoperative CVA, and improved but persistent CM, which was defined as immediate postoperative CVA that was at least 0.5 cm better than preoperative CVA but still ≥ 3 cm; both groups included only patients with preoperative CM. Immediate postoperative radiographs were obtained when the patient was discharged from the hospital after surgery. Demographic, radiographic, and operative variables were collected. Outcomes included major complications, readmissions, reoperations, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and univariate logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis.

RESULTS

In this study, 243 patients were included, and the mean ± SD age was 49.3 ± 18.3 years and the mean number of instrumented levels was 13.5 ± 3.9. The mean preoperative CVA was 2.9 ± 2.7 cm. Of 153/243 patients without preoperative CM (CVA < 3 cm), 13/153 (8.5%) had postoperative iatrogenic CM. In total, 43/243 patients (17.7%) had postoperative CM: iatrogenic CM (13/43 [30.2%]), unchanged/worsened CM (19/43 [44.2%]), and improved but persistent CM (11/43 [25.6%]). Significant risk factors associated with iatrogenic CM were anxiety/depression (OR 3.54, p = 0.04), greater preoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (OR 1.13, p = 0.007), greater preoperative pelvic obliquity (OR 1.41, p = 0.019), lumbosacral fractional (LSF) curve concavity to the same side of the CVA (OR 11.67, p = 0.020), maximum Cobb concavity opposite the CVA (OR 3.85, p = 0.048), and three-column osteotomy (OR 4.34, p = 0.028). In total, 12/13 (92%) iatrogenic CM patients had an LSF curve concavity to the same side as the CVA. Among iatrogenic CM patients, mean pelvic obliquity was 3.1°, 4 (31%) patients had pelvic obliquity > 3°, mean preoperative absolute SVA was 8.0 cm, and 7 (54%) patients had preoperative sagittal malalignment. Patients with iatrogenic CM were more likely to sustain a major complication during the 2-year postoperative period than patients without iatrogenic CM (12% vs 33%, p = 0.046), yet readmission, reoperation, and PROs were similar.

CONCLUSIONS

Postoperative iatrogenic CM occurred in 9% of ASD patients with preoperative normal coronal alignment (CVA < 3 cm). ASD patients who were most at risk for iatrogenic CM included those with preoperative sagittal malalignment, increased pelvic obliquity, LSF curve concavity to the same side as the CVA, and maximum Cobb angle concavity opposite the CVA, as well as those who underwent a three-column osteotomy. Despite sustaining more major complications, iatrogenic CM patients did not have increased risk of readmission, reoperation, or worse PROs.

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Alex S. Ha, Meghan Cerpa, Justin Mathew, Paul Park, Joseph M. Lombardi, Andrew J. Luzzi, Nathan J. Lee, Marc D. Dyrszka, Zeeshan M. Sardar, Ronald A. Lehman Jr., and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

Lumbosacral fractional curves in adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients often have sharp coronal curves resulting in significant pain and imbalance. Postoperative stretch neuropraxia after fractional curve correction can lead to discomfort and unsatisfactory outcomes. The goal of this study was to use radiographic measures to increase understanding of the relationship between postoperative stretch neuropraxia and fractional curve correction.

METHODS

In 62 ASD patients treated from 2015 to 2018, radiographic review was performed, including measurement of the distance between the lower lumbar neural foramen (L4 and L5) in the concavity and convexity of the lumbosacral fractional curve and the ipsilateral femoral heads (FHs; L4–FH and L5–FH) in pre- and postoperative anteroposterior spine radiographs. The largest absolute preoperative to postoperative change in distance between the lower lumbar neural foramen and the ipsilateral FH (ΔL4/L5–FH) was used for analysis. Chi-square analyses, independent and paired t-tests, and logistic regression were performed to study the relationship between L4/L5–FH and stretch neuropraxia for categorical and continuous variables, respectively.

RESULTS

Of the 62 patients, 13 (21.0%) had postoperative stretch neuropraxia. Patients without postoperative stretch neuropraxia had an average ΔL4–FH distance of 16.2 mm compared to patients with stretch neuropraxia, who had an average ΔL4–FH distance of 31.5 mm (p < 0.01). Patients without postoperative neuropraxia had an average ΔL5–FH distance of 11.1 mm compared to those with stretch neuropraxia, who had an average ΔL5–FH distance of 23.0 mm (p < 0.01). Chi-square analysis showed that patients had a 4.78-fold risk of developing stretch neuropraxia with ΔL4–FH > 20 mm (95% CI 1.3–17.3) and a 5.17-fold risk of developing stretch neuropraxia with ΔL5–FH > 15 mm (95% CI 1.4–18.7). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of developing stretch neuropraxia were 15:1 with a ΔL4–FH > 20 mm (95% CI 3–78) and 21:1 with a ΔL5–FH > 15 mm (95% CI 4–113).

CONCLUSIONS

The novel ΔL4/L5–FH distances are strongly associated with postoperative stretch neuropraxia in ASD patients. A ΔL4–FH > 20 mm and ΔL5–FH > 15 mm significantly increase the odds for patients to develop postoperative stretch neuropraxia.

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Takayoshi Shimizu, Meghan Cerpa, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

In adult spinal deformity (ASD), quantifying preoperative lower-extremity (LE) compensation is important in formulating an operative plan to achieve optimal global sagittal alignment. Whole-body radiographs are not always available. This study evaluated the possibility of estimating LE compensation without whole-body radiographs.

METHODS

In total, 200 consecutive ASD patients with full-body radiographic assessment were categorized into the following three groups according to their cranio-hip balance (distance from the cranial sagittal vertical axis to the hip axis [CrSVA-H]): group 1, anterior-shift (A-shift) group (CrSVA-H > 40 mm); group 2, balanced group, −40 mm < CrSVA-H < 40 mm; and group 3, posterior-shift (P-shift) group, CrSVA-H < −40 mm. After analyzing the correlation between CrSVA-H, pelvic tilt (PT), and LE parameters, the cutoff PT and PT/pelvic incidence (PI) values that correlated with the presence of LE compensation were determined. Previously published data from asymptomatic volunteers were used as a baseline threshold (sacrofemoral angle [SFA] > 217.0° and knee flexion angle [KA] > 11.0°).

RESULTS

Among the hip, knee, and ankle, only KA showed a significant increase in the A-shift group compared to the other two groups (p < 0.01). With a wide threshold (SFA > 208.0° and KA > 5.0°), 84.9% of the A-shift group showed LE compensation (hip or knee or both), which was a significantly greater percentage than those in the balanced and P-shift groups (48.4% and 51.9%, p < 0.01). With a narrow threshold (SFA > 217.0° and KA > 11.0°), 62.2% of the A-shift group showed any LE compensation, which was also a higher percentage than the other two groups. The CrSVA-H was moderately correlated with KA (r = 0.502), but had no correlation with PT, SFA, and ankle dorsiflexion angle (AA). PT showed a moderate/strong correlation with SFA, KA, and AA (r = 0.846, 0.624, and 0.622, respectively). With receiver operating characteristic curves, the authors determined that a 23.0° PT with PT/PI > 0.46 predicts the presence of any type of LE compensation with use of the wide threshold.

CONCLUSIONS

ASD patients with increased CrSVA-H, which represents cranio-hip anterior imbalance, demonstrated a higher prevalence of LE compensation, especially knee flexion, compared to those with neutral and posterior shift of CrSVA. PT represents the extent of LE compensation in patients with spinal sagittal malalignment. Using the cutoff value of PT determined in this study, surgeons can preoperatively estimate the extent of LE compensation without obtaining a full-body radiograph.

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Takayoshi Shimizu, Meghan Cerpa, and Lawrence G. Lenke

OBJECTIVE

In adult spinal deformity (ASD), quantifying preoperative lower-extremity (LE) compensation is important in formulating an operative plan to achieve optimal global sagittal alignment. Whole-body radiographs are not always available. This study evaluated the possibility of estimating LE compensation without whole-body radiographs.

METHODS

In total, 200 consecutive ASD patients with full-body radiographic assessment were categorized into the following three groups according to their cranio-hip balance (distance from the cranial sagittal vertical axis to the hip axis [CrSVA-H]): group 1, anterior-shift (A-shift) group (CrSVA-H > 40 mm); group 2, balanced group, −40 mm < CrSVA-H < 40 mm; and group 3, posterior-shift (P-shift) group, CrSVA-H < −40 mm. After analyzing the correlation between CrSVA-H, pelvic tilt (PT), and LE parameters, the cutoff PT and PT/pelvic incidence (PI) values that correlated with the presence of LE compensation were determined. Previously published data from asymptomatic volunteers were used as a baseline threshold (sacrofemoral angle [SFA] > 217.0° and knee flexion angle [KA] > 11.0°).

RESULTS

Among the hip, knee, and ankle, only KA showed a significant increase in the A-shift group compared to the other two groups (p < 0.01). With a wide threshold (SFA > 208.0° and KA > 5.0°), 84.9% of the A-shift group showed LE compensation (hip or knee or both), which was a significantly greater percentage than those in the balanced and P-shift groups (48.4% and 51.9%, p < 0.01). With a narrow threshold (SFA > 217.0° and KA > 11.0°), 62.2% of the A-shift group showed any LE compensation, which was also a higher percentage than the other two groups. The CrSVA-H was moderately correlated with KA (r = 0.502), but had no correlation with PT, SFA, and ankle dorsiflexion angle (AA). PT showed a moderate/strong correlation with SFA, KA, and AA (r = 0.846, 0.624, and 0.622, respectively). With receiver operating characteristic curves, the authors determined that a 23.0° PT with PT/PI > 0.46 predicts the presence of any type of LE compensation with use of the wide threshold.

CONCLUSIONS

ASD patients with increased CrSVA-H, which represents cranio-hip anterior imbalance, demonstrated a higher prevalence of LE compensation, especially knee flexion, compared to those with neutral and posterior shift of CrSVA. PT represents the extent of LE compensation in patients with spinal sagittal malalignment. Using the cutoff value of PT determined in this study, surgeons can preoperatively estimate the extent of LE compensation without obtaining a full-body radiograph.

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Richard Menger, Paul J. Park, Elise C. Bixby, Gerard Marciano, Meghan Cerpa, David Roye, Benjamin D. Roye, Michael Vitale, and Lawrence Lenke

OBJECTIVE

Significant investigation in the adult population has generated a body of research regarding proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF) following long fusions to the sacrum and pelvis. However, much less is known regarding early complications, including PJK and PJF, in the ambulatory pediatric patient. As such, the objective of this study was to address the minimal literature on early complications after ambulatory pediatric patients underwent fusion to the sacrum with instrumentation to the pelvis in the era of sacral-alar-iliac (S2AI) instrumentation.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients with nonidiopathic spinal deformity < 18 years of age with ambulatory capacity who underwent fusion to the pelvis at a multisurgeon pediatric academic spine practice from 2016 to 2018. All surgeries were posterior-only approaches with S2AI screws as the primary technique for sacropelvic fixation. Descriptive, outcome, and radiographic data were obtained. The definition of PJF included symptomatic PJK presenting as fracture, screw pullout, or disruption of the posterior osseoligamentous complex.

RESULTS

Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Nine patients (36.0%) had 15 complications for an overall complication rate of 60.0%. Unplanned return to the operating room occurred 8 times in 6 patients (24.0%). Four patients (16.0%) had wound issues (3 with deep wound infection and 1 with wound breakdown) requiring reoperation. Three patients (12.0%) had PJF, all requiring reoperation. A 16-year-old female patient with syndromic scoliosis underwent extension of fusion due to posterior tension band failure at 6 months. A 17-year-old male patient with neuromuscular scoliosis underwent extension of fusion due to proximal screw pullout at 5 months. A 10-year-old female patient with congenital scoliosis underwent extension for PJF at 5 months following posterior tension band failure. One patient had pseudarthrosis requiring reoperation 20 months postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS

Fixation to the pelvis enables significant deformity correction, but with rather high rates of complications and unexpected returns to the operating room. Considerations of sagittal plane dynamics for PJK and PJF should be strongly analyzed when performing fixation to the pelvis in ambulatory pediatric patients.

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Nathan J. Lee, Michael W. Fields, Venkat Boddapati, Meghan Cerpa, Jalen Dansby, James D. Lin, Zeeshan M. Sardar, Ronald Lehman Jr., and Lawrence Lenke

OBJECTIVE

With the continued evolution of bundled payment plans, there has been a greater focus within orthopedic surgery on quality metrics up to 90 days of care. Although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services does not currently penalize hospitals based on their pediatric readmission rates, it is important to understand the drivers for unplanned readmission to improve the quality of care and reduce costs.

METHODS

The National Readmission Database provides a nationally representative sample of all discharges from US hospitals and allows follow-up across hospitals up to 1 calendar year. Adolescents (age 10–18 years) who underwent idiopathic scoliosis surgery from 2012 to 2015 were included. Patients were separated into those with and those without readmission within 30 days or between 31 and 90 days. Demographics, operative conditions, hospital factors, and surgical outcomes were compared using the chi-square test and t-test. Independent predictors for readmissions were identified using stepwise multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

A total of 30,677 patients underwent adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery from 2012 to 2015. The rates of 30- and 90-day readmissions were 2.9% and 1.4%, respectively. The mean costs associated with the index admission and 30- and 90-day readmissions were $60,680, $23,567, and $16,916, respectively. Common risk factors for readmissions included length of stay > 5 days, obesity, neurological disorders, and chronic use of antiplatelets or anticoagulants. The index admission complications associated with readmissions were unintended durotomy, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Hospital factors, discharge disposition, and operative conditions appeared to be less important for readmission risk. The top reasons for 30-day and 90-day readmissions were wound infection (34.7%) and implant complications (17.3%), respectively. Readmissions requiring a reoperation were significantly higher for those that occurred between 31 and 90 days after the index readmission.

CONCLUSIONS

Readmission rates were low for both 30- and 90-day readmissions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery patients. Nevertheless, readmissions are costly and appear to be associated with potentially modifiable risk factors, although some risk factors remain potentially unavoidable.