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The role of occipital condyle and atlas anomalies on occipital cervical fusion outcomes in Chiari malformation type I with syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium

Alexander T. Yahanda, Joyce Koueik, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin Bierbrauer, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, George I. Jallo, James M. Johnston, Bruce A. Kaufman, Robert F. Keating, Nickalus R. Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, Jonathan Martin, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael S. Muhlbauer, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Mandeep S. Tamber, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, David D. Limbrick Jr., and Raheel Ahmed

OBJECTIVE

Congenital anomalies of the atlanto-occipital articulation may be present in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I). However, it is unclear how these anomalies affect the biomechanical stability of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and whether they are associated with an increased incidence of occipitocervical fusion (OCF) following posterior fossa decompression (PFD). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of condylar hypoplasia and atlas anomalies in children with CM-I and syringomyelia. The authors also investigated the predictive contribution of these anomalies to the occurrence of OCF following PFD (PFD+OCF).

METHODS

The authors analyzed the prevalence of condylar hypoplasia and atlas arch anomalies for patients in the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database who underwent PFD+OCF. Condylar hypoplasia was defined by an atlanto-occipital joint axis angle (AOJAA) ≥ 130°. Atlas assimilation and arch anomalies were identified on presurgical radiographic imaging. This PFD+OCF cohort was compared with a control cohort of patients who underwent PFD alone. The control group was matched to the PFD+OCF cohort according to age, sex, and duration of symptoms at a 2:1 ratio.

RESULTS

Clinical features and radiographic atlanto-occipital joint parameters were compared between 19 patients in the PFD+OCF cohort and 38 patients in the PFD-only cohort. Demographic data were not significantly different between cohorts (p > 0.05). The mean AOJAA was significantly higher in the PFD+OCF group than in the PFD group (144° ± 12° vs 127° ± 6°, p < 0.0001). In the PFD+OCF group, atlas assimilation and atlas arch anomalies were identified in 10 (53%) and 5 (26%) patients, respectively. These anomalies were absent (n = 0) in the PFD group (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified the following 3 CVJ radiographic variables that were predictive of OCF occurrence after PFD: AOJAA ≥ 130° (p = 0.01), clivoaxial angle < 125° (p = 0.02), and occipital condyle–C2 sagittal vertical alignment (C–C2SVA) ≥ 5 mm (p = 0.01). A predictive model based on these 3 factors accurately predicted OCF following PFD (C-statistic 0.95).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ results indicate that the occipital condyle–atlas joint complex might affect the biomechanical integrity of the CVJ in children with CM-I and syringomyelia. They describe the role of the AOJAA metric as an independent predictive factor for occurrence of OCF following PFD. Preoperative identification of these skeletal abnormalities may be used to guide surgical planning and treatment of patients with complex CM-I and coexistent osseous pathology.

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Combined endovascular and skull base surgical management of pediatric craniocervical pathology: a case series

Jonathan P. Scoville, Matthew C. Findlay, Evan Joyce, Nikita Alexiades, Elena Kurudza, Philipp Taussky, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer

OBJECTIVE

Pathological bony abnormalities of the craniocervical region in children sometimes require surgical intervention as part of their management. Rarely, abnormal skeletal or vascular anatomy can render traditional surgical techniques ineffective because of the risk of injury to the vertebral artery. To mitigate these risks, a combined endovascular and skull base approach was devised. The authors describe their experience using vertebral artery sacrifice as an adjunctive surgical method to reduce the risk of inadvertent vertebral artery injury during surgical correction of pediatric craniocervical deformity.

METHODS

Three patients underwent vertebral artery sacrifice for structural craniocervical pathologies (1 male, 2 females; ages 12, 14, and 3 years). One patient presented with basilar invagination odontogenic brainstem compression, and the other 2 patients presented with congenital cervical fusion. All patients underwent endovascular left vertebral artery sacrifice after passing balloon test occlusion.

RESULTS

No adverse effects from the vertebral artery sacrifice were observed. At the last follow-ups (35, 30, and 32 months), all 3 patients had a satisfactory outcome with no adverse effects as a result of their sacrificed artery.

CONCLUSIONS

Endovascular vertebral artery sacrifice followed by skull base approaches can be used to effectively and safely treat craniocervical pathology from a variety of pediatric skeletal abnormalities.

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Building consensus for the medical management of children with moderate and severe acute spinal cord injury: a modified Delphi study

Travis S. CreveCoeur, Nikita G. Alexiades, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Samuel R. Browd, Jason Chu, Anthony A. Figaji, Mari L. Groves, Todd C. Hankinson, David H. Harter, Steven W. Hwang, Andrew Jea, Steven G. Kernie, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Jonathan E. Martin, Matthew E. Oetgen, Alexander K. Powers, Curtis J. Rozzelle, David L. Skaggs, Jennifer M. Strahle, John C. Wellons III, Michael G. Vitale, and Richard C. E. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

The focus of this modified Delphi study was to investigate and build consensus regarding the medical management of children with moderate and severe acute spinal cord injury (SCI) during their initial inpatient hospitalization. This impetus for the study was based on the AANS/CNS guidelines for pediatric SCI published in 2013, which indicated that there was no consensus provided in the literature describing the medical management of pediatric patients with SCIs.

METHODS

An international, multidisciplinary group of 19 physicians, including pediatric neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and intensivists, were asked to participate. The authors chose to include both complete and incomplete injuries with traumatic as well as iatrogenic etiologies (e.g., spinal deformity surgery, spinal traction, intradural spinal surgery, etc.) due to the overall low incidence of pediatric SCI, potentially similar pathophysiology, and scarce literature exploring whether different etiologies of SCI should be managed differently. An initial survey of current practices was administered, and based on the responses, a follow-up survey of potential consensus statements was distributed. Consensus was defined as ≥ 80% of participants reaching agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree). A final meeting was held virtually to generate final consensus statements.

RESULTS

Following the final Delphi round, 35 statements reached consensus after modification and consolidation of previous statements. Statements were categorized into the following eight sections: inpatient care unit, spinal immobilization, pharmacological management, cardiopulmonary management, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, genitourinary management, gastrointestinal/nutritional management, and pressure ulcer prophylaxis. All participants stated that they would be willing or somewhat willing to change their practices based on consensus guidelines.

CONCLUSIONS

General management strategies were similar for both iatrogenic (e.g., spinal deformity, traction, etc.) and traumatic SCIs. Steroids were recommended only for injury after intradural surgery, not after acute traumatic or iatrogenic extradural surgery. Consensus was reached that mean arterial pressure ranges are preferred for blood pressure targets following SCI, with goals between 80 and 90 mm Hg for children at least 6 years of age. Further multicenter study of steroid use following acute neuromonitoring changes was recommended.

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Introduction. Stability and motion: addressing the pathology of Chiari malformation and craniocervical junction

David D. Limbrick Jr., Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Atul Goel, and Jennifer M. Strahle

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A likely HOXC4 predisposition variant for Chiari malformations

Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Samuel H. Cheshier, Jeff Stevens, Julio C. Facelli, Kerry Rowe, John D. Heiss, Anthony Musolf, David H. Viskochil, Kristina L. Allen-Brady, and Lisa A. Cannon-Albright

OBJECTIVE

Inherited variants predisposing patients to type 1 or 1.5 Chiari malformation (CM) have been hypothesized but have proven difficult to confirm. The authors used a unique high-risk pedigree population resource and approach to identify rare candidate variants that likely predispose individuals to CM and protein structure prediction tools to identify pathogenicity mechanisms.

METHODS

By using the Utah Population Database, the authors identified pedigrees with significantly increased numbers of members with CM diagnosis. From a separate DNA biorepository of 451 samples from CM patients and families, 32 CM patients belonging to 1 or more of 24 high-risk Chiari pedigrees were identified. Two high-risk pedigrees had 3 CM-affected relatives, and 22 pedigrees had 2 CM-affected relatives. To identify rare candidate predisposition gene variants, whole-exome sequence data from these 32 CM patients belonging to 24 CM-affected related pairs from high-risk pedigrees were analyzed. The I-TASSER package for protein structure prediction was used to predict the structures of both the wild-type and mutant proteins found here.

RESULTS

Sequence analysis of the 24 affected relative pairs identified 38 rare candidate Chiari predisposition gene variants that were shared by at least 1 CM-affected pair from a high-risk pedigree. The authors found a candidate variant in HOXC4 that was shared by 2 CM-affected patients in 2 independent pedigrees. All 4 of these CM cases, 2 in each pedigree, exhibited a specific craniocervical bony phenotype defined by a clivoaxial angle less than 125°. The protein structure prediction results suggested that the mutation considered here may reduce the binding affinity of HOXC4 to DNA.

CONCLUSIONS

Analysis of unique and powerful Utah genetic resources allowed identification of 38 strong candidate CM predisposition gene variants. These variants should be pursued in independent populations. One of the candidates, a rare HOXC4 variant, was identified in 2 high-risk CM pedigrees, with this variant possibly predisposing patients to a Chiari phenotype with craniocervical kyphosis.

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Developing consensus for the management of pediatric cervical spine disorders and stabilization: a modified Delphi study

*Yosef M. Dastagirzada, Nikita G. Alexiades, David B. Kurland, Sebastián N. Anderson, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, David B. Bumpass, Sandip Chatterjee, Mari L. Groves, Todd C. Hankinson, David Harter, Daniel Hedequist, Andrew Jea, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Jonathan E. Martin, Matthew E. Oetgen, Joshua Pahys, Curtis Rozzelle, Jennifer M. Strahle, Dominic Thompson, Burt Yaszay, and Richard C. E. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

Cervical spine disorders in children are relatively uncommon; therefore, paradigms for surgical and nonsurgical clinical management are not well established. The purpose of this study was to bring together an international, multidisciplinary group of pediatric cervical spine experts to build consensus via a modified Delphi approach regarding the clinical management of children with cervical spine disorders and those undergoing cervical spine stabilization surgery.

METHODS

A modified Delphi method was used to identify consensus statements for the management of children with cervical spine disorders requiring stabilization. A survey of current practices, supplemented by a literature review, was electronically distributed to 17 neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons experienced with the clinical management of pediatric cervical spine disorders. Subsequently, 52 summary statements were formulated and distributed to the group. Statements that reached near consensus or that were of particular interest were then discussed during an in-person meeting to attain further consensus. Consensus was defined as ≥ 80% agreement on a 4-point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree).

RESULTS

Forty-five consensus-driven statements were identified, with all participants willing to incorporate them into their practice. For children with cervical spine disorders and/or stabilization, consensus statements were divided into the following categories: A) preoperative planning (12 statements); B) radiographic thresholds of instability (4); C) intraoperative/perioperative management (15); D) postoperative care (11); and E) nonoperative management (3). Several important statements reaching consensus included the following recommendations: 1) to obtain pre-positioning baseline signals with intraoperative neuromonitoring; 2) to use rigid instrumentation when technically feasible; 3) to provide postoperative external immobilization for 6–12 weeks with a rigid cervical collar rather than halo vest immobilization; and 4) to continue clinical postoperative follow-up at least until anatomical cervical spine maturity was reached. In addition, preoperative radiographic thresholds for instability that reached consensus included the following: 1) translational motion ≥ 5 mm at C1–2 (excluding patients with Down syndrome) or ≥ 4 mm in the subaxial spine; 2) dynamic angulation in the subaxial spine ≥ 10°; and 3) abnormal motion and T2 signal change on MRI seen at the same level.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the authors have demonstrated that a multidisciplinary, international group of pediatric cervical spine experts was able to reach consensus on 45 statements regarding the management of pediatric cervical spine disorders and stabilization. Further study is required to determine if implementation of these practices can lead to reduced complications and improved outcomes for children.

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Initial experience with Pipeline embolization of intracranial pseudoaneurysms in pediatric patients

Karol P. Budohoski, Raj Thakrar, Zoya Voronovich, Robert C. Rennert, Craig Kilburg, Ramesh Grandhi, William T. Couldwell, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, and Philipp Taussky

OBJECTIVE

Flow-diverting devices have been used successfully for the treatment of complex intracranial vascular injuries in adults, but the role of these devices in treating iatrogenic and traumatic intracranial vascular injuries in children remains unclear. The authors present their experience using the Pipeline embolization device (PED) for treating intracranial pseudoaneurysms in children.

METHODS

This single-center retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients with traumatic and iatrogenic injuries to the intracranial vasculature that were treated with the PED between 2015 and 2021. Demographic data, indications for treatment, the number and sizes of PEDs used, follow-up imaging, and clinical outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS

Six patients with a median age of 12 years (range 7–16 years) underwent PED placement to treat intracranial pseudoaneurysms. There were 3 patients with hemorrhagic presentation, 2 with ischemia, and 1 in whom a growing pseudoaneurysm was found on angiography. Injured vessels included the anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA, n = 2), the cavernous ICA (n = 1), and the distal cervical ICA (n = 1). All 6 pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated with PED deployment. One patient required re-treatment with a second PED within a week because of concern for a growing pseudoaneurysm. One patient experienced parent vessel occlusion without neurological sequelae.

CONCLUSIONS

Use of the PED is feasible for the management of iatrogenic and traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the intracranial vasculature in children, even in the setting of hemorrhagic presentation.

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High prevalence of gram-negative and multiorganism surgical site infections after pediatric complex tethered spinal cord surgery: a multicenter study

Nikita G. Alexiades, Belinda Shao, Edward S. Ahn, Jeffrey P. Blount, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Todd C. Hankinson, Cody L. Nesvick, David I. Sandberg, Gregory G. Heuer, Lisa Saiman, Neil A. Feldstein, and Richard C. E. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

Complex tethered spinal cord (cTSC) release in children is often complicated by surgical site infection (SSI). Children undergoing this surgery share many similarities with patients undergoing correction for neuromuscular scoliosis, where high rates of gram-negative and polymicrobial infections have been reported. Similar organisms isolated from SSIs after cTSC release were recently demonstrated in a single-center pilot study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if these findings are reproducible across a larger, multicenter study.

METHODS

A multicenter, retrospective chart review including 7 centers was conducted to identify all cases of SSI following cTSC release during a 10-year study period from 2007 to 2017. Demographic information along with specific microbial culture data and antibiotic sensitivities for each cultured organism were collected.

RESULTS

A total of 44 SSIs were identified from a total of 655 cases, with 78 individual organisms isolated. There was an overall SSI rate of 6.7%, with 43% polymicrobial and 66% containing at least one gram-negative organism. Half of SSIs included an organism that was resistant to cefazolin, whereas only 32% of SSIs were completely susceptible to cefazolin.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, gram-negative and polymicrobial infections were responsible for the majority of SSIs following cTSC surgery, with approximately half resistant to cefazolin. Broader gram-negative antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for this patient population.

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Complications and outcomes of posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty versus without duraplasty for pediatric patients with Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium

S. Hassan A. Akbari, Alexander T. Yahanda, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin Bierbrauer, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, George I. Jallo, James M. Johnston, Bruce A. Kaufman, Robert F. Keating, Nicklaus R. Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael S. Muhlbauer, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Mandeep S. Tamber, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine differences in complications and outcomes between posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) and without duraplasty (PFD) for the treatment of pediatric Chiari malformation type I (CM1) and syringomyelia (SM).

METHODS

The authors used retrospective and prospective components of the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database to identify pediatric patients with CM1-SM who received PFD or PFDD and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. Preoperative, treatment, and postoperative characteristics were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

A total of 692 patients met the inclusion criteria for this database study. PFD was performed in 117 (16.9%) and PFDD in 575 (83.1%) patients. The mean age at surgery was 9.86 years, and the mean follow-up time was 2.73 years. There were no significant differences in presenting signs or symptoms between groups, although the preoperative syrinx size was smaller in the PFD group. The PFD group had a shorter mean operating room time (p < 0.0001), fewer patients with > 50 mL of blood loss (p = 0.04), and shorter hospital stays (p = 0.0001). There were 4 intraoperative complications, all within the PFDD group (0.7%, p > 0.99). Patients undergoing PFDD had a 6-month complication rate of 24.3%, compared with 13.7% in the PFD group (p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for postoperative complications beyond 6 months (p = 0.33). PFD patients were more likely to require revision surgery (17.9% vs 8.3%, p = 0.002). PFDD was associated with greater improvements in headaches (89.6% vs 80.8%, p = 0.04) and back pain (86.5% vs 59.1%, p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for improvement in neurological examination findings. PFDD was associated with greater reduction in anteroposterior syrinx size (43.7% vs 26.9%, p = 0.0001) and syrinx length (18.9% vs 5.6%, p = 0.04) compared with PFD.

CONCLUSIONS

PFD was associated with reduced operative time and blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and fewer postoperative complications within 6 months. However, PFDD was associated with better symptom improvement and reduction in syrinx size and lower rates of revision decompression. The two surgeries have low intraoperative complication rates and comparable complication rates beyond 6 months.

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Socioeconomic and demographic factors in the diagnosis and treatment of Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia

Syed Hassan A. Akbari, Asad A. Rizvi, Travis S. CreveCoeur, Rowland H. Han, Jacob K. Greenberg, James Torner, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, John C. Wellons III, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Francesco T. Mangano, James M. Johnston, Manish N. Shah, Bermans J. Iskandar, Raheel Ahmed, Gerald F. Tuite, Bruce A. Kaufman, David J. Daniels, Eric M. Jackson, Gerald A. Grant, Alexander K. Powers, Daniel E. Couture, P. David Adelson, Tord D. Alden, Philipp R. Aldana, Richard C. E. Anderson, Nathan R. Selden, Karin Bierbrauer, William Boydston, Joshua J. Chern, William E. Whitehead, Robert C. Dauser, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, Herbert E. Fuchs, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Brent R. O’Neill, Mark Iantosca, W. Jerry Oakes, Robert F. Keating, Paul Klimo Jr., Michael S. Muhlbauer, J. Gordon McComb, Arnold H. Menezes, Nickalus R. Khan, Toba N. Niazi, John Ragheb, Chevis N. Shannon, Jodi L. Smith, Laurie L. Ackerman, Andrew H. Jea, Cormac O. Maher, Prithvi Narayan, Gregory W. Albert, Scellig S. D. Stone, Lissa C. Baird, Naina L. Gross, Susan R. Durham, Stephanie Greene, Robert C. McKinstry, Joshua S. Shimony, Jennifer M. Strahle, Matthew D. Smyth, Ralph G. Dacey Jr., Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to assess the social determinants that influence access and outcomes for pediatric neurosurgical care for patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and syringomyelia (SM).

METHODS

The authors used retro- and prospective components of the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database to identify pediatric patients with CM-I and SM who received surgical treatment and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. Race, ethnicity, and insurance status were used as comparators for preoperative, treatment, and postoperative characteristics and outcomes.

RESULTS

A total of 637 patients met inclusion criteria, and race or ethnicity data were available for 603 (94.7%) patients. A total of 463 (76.8%) were non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 140 (23.2%) were non-White. The non-White patients were older at diagnosis (p = 0.002) and were more likely to have an individualized education plan (p < 0.01). More non-White than NHW patients presented with cerebellar and cranial nerve deficits (i.e., gait ataxia [p = 0.028], nystagmus [p = 0.002], dysconjugate gaze [p = 0.03], hearing loss [p = 0.003], gait instability [p = 0.003], tremor [p = 0.021], or dysmetria [p < 0.001]). Non-White patients had higher rates of skull malformation (p = 0.004), platybasia (p = 0.002), and basilar invagination (p = 0.036). Non-White patients were more likely to be treated at low-volume centers than at high-volume centers (38.7% vs 15.2%; p < 0.01). Non-White patients were older at the time of surgery (p = 0.001) and had longer operative times (p < 0.001), higher estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), and a longer hospital stay (p = 0.04). There were no major group differences in terms of treatments performed or complications. The majority of subjects used private insurance (440, 71.5%), whereas 175 (28.5%) were using Medicaid or self-pay. Private insurance was used in 42.2% of non-White patients compared to 79.8% of NHW patients (p < 0.01). There were no major differences in presentation, treatment, or outcome between insurance groups. In multivariate modeling, non-White patients were more likely to present at an older age after controlling for sex and insurance status (p < 0.01). Non-White and male patients had a longer duration of symptoms before reaching diagnosis (p = 0.033 and 0.004, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Socioeconomic and demographic factors appear to influence the presentation and management of patients with CM-I and SM. Race is associated with age and timing of diagnosis as well as operating room time, estimated blood loss, and length of hospital stay. This exploration of socioeconomic and demographic barriers to care will be useful in understanding how to improve access to pediatric neurosurgical care for patients with CM-I and SM.