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Asleep triple-modality motor mapping for perirolandic gliomas: an update on outcomes

Ramin A. Morshed, Daniel D. Cummins, John P. Clark III, Jacob S. Young, Alexander F. Haddad, Andrew J. Gogos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe resection of gliomas near motor pathways is facilitated by intraoperative mapping. Here, the authors review their results with triple-modality asleep motor mapping with motor evoked potentials and bipolar and monopolar stimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping during glioma surgery in an expanded cohort.

METHODS

This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent resection of a perirolandic glioma near motor pathways. Clinical and neuromonitoring data were extracted from the electronic medical records for review. All patients with new or worsened postoperative motor deficits were followed for at least 6 months. Regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with a persistent motor deficit.

RESULTS

Between January 2018 and December 2021, 160 operations were performed in 151 patients with perirolandic glioma. Sixty-four patients (40%) had preoperative motor deficits, and the median extent of resection was 98%. Overall, patients in 38 cases (23.8%) had new or worse immediate postoperative deficits by discharge, and persistent deficits by 6 months were seen in 6 cases (3.8%), all in patients with high-grade gliomas. There were no new persistent deficits in low-grade glioma patients (0%). The risk factors for a persistent deficit included an insular tumor component (OR 8.6, p = 0.01), preoperative motor weakness (OR 8.1, p = 0.03), intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) changes (OR 36.5, p < 0.0001), and peri–resection cavity ischemia (OR 7.5, p = 0.04). Most persistent deficits were attributable to ischemic injury despite structural preservation of the descending motor tracts. For patients with persistent motor deficits, there were 3 cases (50%) in which a change in MEP was noted but subsequent subcortical monopolar stimulation still elicited a response in the corresponding muscle groups, suggesting axonal activation distal to a point of injury.

CONCLUSIONS

Asleep triple motor mapping results in a low rate of permanent deficits, especially for low-grade gliomas. Peri–resection cavity ischemia continues to be a significant risk factor for permanent deficit despite maintaining appropriate distance for subcortical tracts based on monopolar feedback.

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Intraventricular meningioma resection and visual outcomes

John P. Andrews, Daniel D. Cummins, Ramin A. Morshed, Benyam Kinde, Manish K. Aghi, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, and Philip V. Theodosopoulos

OBJECTIVE

Intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs) of the lateral ventricle are rare tumors that present surgical challenges because of their deep location. Visual field deficits (VFDs) are one risk associated with these tumors and their treatment. VFDs may be present preoperatively due to the tumor and mass effect (tumor VFDs) or may develop postoperatively due to the surgical approach (surgical VFDs). This institutional series aimed to review surgical outcomes following resection of IVMs, with a focus on VFDs.

METHODS

Patients who received IVM resection at one academic institution between the years 1996 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reconstructions of the optic radiations around the tumor were performed from preoperative IVM imaging. The VFD course and resolution were documented.

RESULTS

Thirty-two adult patients underwent IVM resection, with gross-total resection in 30 patients (93.8%). Preoperatively, tumor VFDs were present in 6 patients, resolving after surgery in 5 patients. Five other patients (without preoperative VFD) had new persistent surgical VFDs postoperatively (5/32, 15.6%) that persisted to the most recent follow-up. Of the 5 patients with persistent surgical VFDs, 4 received a transtemporal approach and 1 received a transparietal approach, and all these deficits occurred prior to regular use of DTI in preoperative imaging.

CONCLUSIONS

New surgical VFDs are a common neurological deficit after IVM resection. Preoperative DTI may demonstrate distortion of the optic radiations around the tumor, thus revealing safe operative corridors to prevent surgical VFDs.

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Association of CDKN2A alterations with increased postoperative seizure risk after resection of brain metastases

Daniel D. Cummins, Joseph H. Garcia, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Jason E. Chung, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Edward F. Chang, Mariza Daras, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Manish K. Aghi, and Ramin A. Morshed

OBJECTIVE

Seizures are common and significantly disabling for patients with brain metastases (BMs). Although resection can provide seizure control, a subset of patients with BMs may continue to suffer seizures postoperatively. Genomic BM characteristics may influence which patients are at risk for postoperative seizures. This work explores correlations between genomic alterations and risk of postoperative seizures following BM resection.

METHODS

All patients underwent BM resection at a single institution, with available clinical and sequencing data on more than 500 oncogenes. Clinical seizures were documented pre- and postoperatively. A random forest machine learning classification was used to determine candidate genomic alterations associated with postoperative seizures, and clinical and top genomic variables were correlated with postoperative seizures by using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS

There were 112 patients with BMs who underwent 114 surgeries and had at least 1 month of postoperative follow-up. Seizures occurred preoperatively in 26 (22.8%) patients and postoperatively in 25 (21.9%). The Engel classification achieved at 6 months for those with preoperative seizures was class I in 13 (50%); class II in 6 (23.1%); class III in 5 (19.2%), and class IV in 2 (7.7%). In those with postoperative seizures, only 8 (32.0%) had seizures preoperatively, and preoperative seizures were not a significant predictor of postoperative seizures (HR 1.84; 95% CI 0.79–4.37; p = 0.156). On random forest classification and multivariate Cox analysis controlling for factors including recurrence, extent of resection, and number of BMs, CDKN2A alterations were associated with postoperative seizures (HR 3.22; 95% CI 1.27–8.16; p = 0.014). Melanoma BMs were associated with higher risk of postoperative seizures compared with all other primary malignancies (HR 5.23; 95% CI 1.37–19.98; p = 0.016). Of 39 BMs with CDKN2A alteration, 35.9% (14/39) had postoperative seizures, compared to 14.7% (11/75) without CDKN2A alteration. The overall rate of postoperative seizures in melanoma BMs was 42.9% (15/35), compared with 12.7% (10/79) for all other primary malignancies.

CONCLUSIONS

CDKN2A alterations and melanoma primary malignancy are associated with increased postoperative seizure risk following resection of BMs. These results may help guide postoperative seizure prophylaxis in patients undergoing resection of BMs.

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Genomic alterations associated with rapid progression of brain metastases

Amalie S. V. Uggerly, Daniel D. Cummins, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Mariza Daras, Manish K. Aghi, and Ramin A. Morshed

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate associations between genomic alterations in resected brain metastases and rapid local and distant CNS recurrence identified at the time of postoperative adjuvant radiosurgery.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study on patients who underwent resection of intracranial brain metastases. Next-generation sequencing of more than 500 coding genes was performed on brain metastasis specimens. Postoperative and preradiosurgery MR images were compared to identify rapid recurrence. Genomic data were associated with rapid local and distant CNS recurrence of brain metastases using nominal regression analyses.

RESULTS

The cohort contained 92 patients with 92 brain metastases. Thirteen (14.1%) patients had a rapid local recurrence, and 64 (69.6%) patients had rapid distant CNS progression by the time of postoperative adjuvant radiosurgery, which occurred in a median time of 25 days (range 3–85 days) from surgery. RB1 and CTNNB1 mutations were seen in 8.7% and 9.8% of the cohort, respectively, and were associated with a significantly higher risk of rapid local recurrence (RB1: OR 13.6, 95% CI 2.0–92.39, p = 0.008; and CTNNB1: OR 11.97, 95% CI 2.25–63.78, p = 0.004) on multivariate analysis. No genes were found to be associated with rapid distant CNS progression. However, the presence of extracranial disease was significantly associated with a higher risk of rapid distant recurrence on multivariate analysis (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.08–15.34, p = 0.039).

CONCLUSIONS

Genomic alterations in RB1 or CTNNB1 were associated with a significantly higher risk of rapid recurrence at the resection site. Although no genomic alterations were associated with rapid distant recurrence, having active extracranial disease was a risk factor for new lesions by the time of adjuvant radiotherapy after resection.

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Genomic alterations associated with postoperative nodular leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Daniel D. Cummins, Minh P. Nguyen, Satvir Saggi, Harish N. Vasudevan, Steve E. Braunstein, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Mariza Daras, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

The relationship between brain metastasis resection and risk of nodular leptomeningeal disease (nLMD) is unclear. This study examined genomic alterations found in brain metastases with the aim of identifying alterations associated with postoperative nLMD in the context of clinical and treatment factors.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on patients who underwent resection of brain metastases between 2014 and 2022 and had clinical and genomic data available. Postoperative nLMD was the primary endpoint of interest. Targeted next-generation sequencing of > 500 oncogenes was performed in brain metastases. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify clinical features and genomic alterations associated with nLMD.

RESULTS

The cohort comprised 101 patients with tumors originating from multiple cancer types. There were 15 patients with nLMD (14.9% of the cohort) with a median time from surgery to nLMD diagnosis of 8.2 months. Two supervised machine learning algorithms consistently identified CDKN2A/B codeletion and ERBB2 amplification as the top predictors associated with postoperative nLMD across all cancer types. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis including clinical factors and genomic alterations observed in the cohort, tumor volume (× 10 cm3; HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.5; p = 0.04), CDKN2A/B codeletion (HR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7–16.9; p = 0.004), and ERBB2 amplification (HR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1–14.4; p = 0.04) were associated with a decreased time to postoperative nLMD.

CONCLUSIONS

In addition to increased resected tumor volume, ERBB2 amplification and CDKN2A/B deletion were independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative nLMD across multiple cancer types. Additional work is needed to determine if targeted therapy decreases this risk in the postoperative setting.

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High-volume facilities are not always low risk: comparing risk-standardized mortality rates versus facility volume as quality measures in surgical neuro-oncology

Eric J. Chalif, Jacob S. Young, Genaro R. Villa, Manish K. Aghi, Jacopo Lenzi, and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

Risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) have recently been shown to outperform facility case volume as a proxy for surgical quality in lung and gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate RSMR as a surgical quality metric in primary CNS cancer.

METHODS

This retrospective observational cohort study used data from the National Cancer Database, a population-based oncology outcomes database sourced from more than 1500 institutions in the United States, and included adult patients 18 years of age and older who were diagnosed with glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma, or meningioma and were treated with surgery. For each group, RSMR quintiles and annual volume were calculated in a training set (2009–2013) and these thresholds were applied to the validation set (2014–2018). In this paper, the authors compared the effectiveness and efficiency of facility volume–based versus RSMR-based hospital centralization models and evaluated the overlap between the two systems. A patterns-of-care analysis was also performed to explore socioeconomic predictors of being treated at better-performing treating facilities.

RESULTS

A total of 37,838 meningioma, 21,189 pituitary adenoma, and 30,788 glioblastoma patients were surgically treated from 2014 to 2018. There were substantial differences between RSMR and facility volume classification schemes among all tumor types. In an RSMR-based centralization model, an average of 36 patients undergoing glioblastoma surgery would need to relocate to a low-mortality hospital to prevent one 30-day mortality following surgery, whereas 46 would need to relocate to a high-volume hospital. For pituitary adenoma and meningioma, both metrics were inefficient in centralizing care to reduce surgical mortality. Additionally, overall survival for glioblastoma patients was better modeled in an RSMR classification scheme. Analyses to investigate the impact of care disparities found that Black and Hispanic patients, patients earning less than $38,000, and uninsured patients were more likely to be treated at high-mortality hospitals.

CONCLUSIONS

RSMR is more effective and efficient than a traditional volume-based approach for preventing early postoperative death in glioblastoma surgery. These data have important implications for future quality-related studies in neurosurgical oncology and may be relevant for healthcare/insurance payments, hospital evaluation assessments, healthcare disparities, and the standardization of care across hospitals.

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Does waiting for surgery matter? How time from diagnostic MRI to resection affects outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

Jacob S. Young, Nadeem N. Al-Adli, Rachel Muster, Ankush Chandra, Ramin A. Morshed, Matheus P. Pereira, Eric J. Chalif, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe resection is the standard of care for patients presenting with lesions concerning for glioblastoma (GBM) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, there is no consensus on surgical urgency for patients with an excellent performance status, which complicates patient counseling and may increase patient anxiety. This study aims to assess the impact of time to surgery (TTS) on clinical and survival outcomes in patients with GBM.

METHODS

This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed IDH–wild-type GBM who underwent initial resection at the University of California, San Francisco, between 2014 and 2016. Patients were grouped according to the time from diagnostic MRI to surgery (i.e., TTS): ≤ 7, > 7–21, and > 21 days. Contrast-enhancing tumor volumes (CETVs) were measured using software. Initial CETV (CETV1) and preoperative CETV (CETV2) were used to evaluate tumor growth represented as percent change (ΔCETV) and specific growth rate (SPGR; % growth/day). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the date of resection and were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses.

RESULTS

Of the 145 patients (median TTS 10 days), 56 (39%), 53 (37%), and 36 (25%) underwent surgery ≤ 7, > 7–21, and > 21 days from initial imaging, respectively. Median OS and PFS among the study cohort were 15.5 and 10.3 months, respectively, and did not differ among the TTS groups (p = 0.81 and 0.17, respectively). Median CETV1 was 35.9, 15.7, and 10.2 cm3 across the TTS groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Preoperative biopsy and presenting to an outside hospital emergency department were associated with an average 12.79-day increase and 9.09-day decrease in TTS, respectively. Distance from the treating facility (median 57.19 miles) did not affect TTS. In the growth cohort, TTS was associated with an average 2.21% increase in ΔCETV per day; however, there was no effect of TTS on SPGR, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), postoperative deficits, survival, discharge location, or hospital length of stay. Subgroup analyses did not identify any high-risk groups for which a shorter TTS may be beneficial.

CONCLUSIONS

An increased TTS for patients with imaging concerning for GBM did not impact clinical outcomes, and while there was a significant association with ΔCETV, SPGR remained unaffected. However, SPGR was associated with a worse preoperative KPS, which highlights the importance of tumor growth speed over TTS. Therefore, while it is ill advised to wait an unnecessarily long time after initial imaging studies, these patients do not require urgent/emergency surgery and can seek tertiary care opinions and/or arrange for additional preoperative support/resources. Future studies are needed to explore subgroups for whom TTS may impact clinical outcomes.

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Pseudoprogression versus true progression in glioblastoma: what neurosurgeons need to know

Jacob S. Young, Nadeem Al-Adli, Katie Scotford, Soonmee Cha, and Mitchel S. Berger

Management of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is complex and involves implementing standard therapies including resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, as well as novel immunotherapies and targeted small-molecule inhibitors through clinical trials and precision medicine approaches. As treatments have advanced, the radiological and clinical assessment of patients with GBM has become even more challenging and nuanced. Advances in spatial resolution and both anatomical and physiological information that can be derived from MRI have greatly improved the noninvasive assessment of GBM before, during, and after therapy. Identification of pseudoprogression (PsP), defined as changes concerning for tumor progression that are, in fact, transient and related to treatment response, is critical for successful patient management. These temporary changes can produce new clinical symptoms due to mass effect and edema. Differentiating this entity from true tumor progression is a major decision point in the patient’s management and prognosis. Providers may choose to start an alternative therapy, transition to a clinical trial, consider repeat resection, or continue with the current therapy in hopes of resolution. In this review, the authors describe the invasive and noninvasive techniques neurosurgeons need to be aware of to identify PsP and facilitate surgical decision-making.

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Identification of risk factors associated with leptomeningeal disease after resection of brain metastases

Ramin A. Morshed, Satvir Saggi, Daniel D. Cummins, Annette M. Molinaro, Jacob S. Young, Jennifer A. Viner, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Ezequiel Goldschmidt, Lauren Boreta, Steve E. Braunstein, Edward F. Chang, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Manish K. Aghi, and Mariza Daras

OBJECTIVE

Resection of brain metastases (BMs) may be associated with increased risk of leptomeningeal disease (LMD). This study examined rates and predictors of LMD, including imaging subtypes, in patients who underwent resection of a BM followed by postoperative radiation.

METHODS

A retrospective, single-center study was conducted examining overall LMD, classic LMD (cLMD), and nodular LMD (nLMD) risk. Logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, and random forest analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with LMD.

RESULTS

Of the 217 patients in the cohort, 47 (21.7%) developed postoperative LMD, with 19 cases (8.8%) of cLMD and 28 cases (12.9%) of nLMD. Six-, 12-, and 24-month LMD-free survival rates were 92.3%, 85.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. Patients with cLMD had worse survival outcomes from the date of LMD diagnosis compared with nLMD (median 2.4 vs 6.9 months, p = 0.02, log-rank test). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified cerebellar/insular/occipital location (hazard ratio [HR] 3.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73–6.11, p = 0.0003), absence of extracranial disease (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27–4.88, p = 0.008), and ventricle contact (HR 2.82, 95% CI 1.5–5.3, p = 0.001) to be associated with postoperative LMD. A predictive model using random forest analysis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 in a test cohort identified tumor location, systemic disease status, and tumor volume as the most important factors associated with LMD.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor location, absence of extracranial disease at the time of surgery, ventricle contact, and increased tumor volume were associated with LMD. Further work is needed to determine whether escalating therapies in patients at risk of LMD prevents disease dissemination.

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Recognizing the psychological impact of a glioma diagnosis on mental and behavioral health: a systematic review of what neurosurgeons need to know

Jacob S. Young, Nadeem Al-Adli, Youssef E. Sibih, Katrina L. Scotford, Megan Casey, Steven James, and Mitchel S. Berger

A cancer diagnosis is life altering and frequently associated with both acute and long-lasting psychosocial and behavioral distress for patients. The impact of a diffuse glioma diagnosis on mental health is an important aspect of the patient experience with their disease. This needs to be understood by neurosurgeons so these concerns can be appropriately addressed in a timely fashion and integrated into the multidisciplinary care of neuro-oncology patients. The relatively grave prognosis associated with diffuse gliomas, the morbidity associated with treatment, and the constant threat of developing a new neurological deficit all can negatively affect a patient’s mental ability to cope and ultimately manifest in mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the variety of behavioral health disorders patients may experience following a glioma diagnosis and discuss possible treatment options. The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched through July 1, 2022, using broad search terms, which resulted in 5028 studies that were uploaded to Covidence systematic review software. Duplicates, non–English-language studies, and studies with irrelevant outcomes or incorrect design were removed (n = 3167). A total of 92 articles reporting behavioral health outcomes in brain tumor patients were categorized and extracted for associations with overall mental health, anxiety, depression, distress, stress, pharmacology, interventions, and mental health in caregivers. The authors identified numerous studies reporting the prevalence of mental health disorders and their negative influence in this population. However, there is a paucity of literature on therapeutic options for patients. Given the strong correlation between patient quality of life and mental well-being, there is a considerable need for early recognition and treatment of these behavioral health disorders to optimize everyday functioning for patients.