Fatal craniovertebral junction (CVJ) injuries were the most common cause of death in high-speed motor sports prior to 2001. Following the death of a mutual friend and race car driver, Patrick Jacquemart (1946–1981), biomechanical engineer Dr. Robert Hubbard, along with race car driver and brother-in-law Jim Downing, developed the concept for the Head and Neck Support (HANS) device to prevent flexion-distraction injuries during high-velocity impact. Biomechanical testing showed that neck shear and loading forces experienced during collisions were 3 times the required amount for a catastrophic injury. Crash sled testing with and without the HANS device elucidated reductions in neck tension, neck compression, head acceleration, and chest acceleration experienced by dummies during high-energy crashes. Simultaneously, motor sports accidents such as Dale Earnhardt Sr.'s fatal crash in 2001 galvanized public opinion in favor of serious safety reform. Analysis of Earnhardt's accident demonstrated that his car's velocity parallel to the barrier was more than 150 miles per hour (mph), with deceleration upon impact of roughly 43 mph in a total of 0.08 seconds. After careful review, several major racing series such as the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) and Championship Auto Racing Team (CART) made major changes to ensure the safety of drivers at the turn of the 21st century. Since the rule requiring the HANS device in professional auto racing series was put in place, there has not been a single reported case of a fatal CVJ injury.