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Oral Presentations 2016 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting Chicago, IL • April 30–May 4, 2016

Published online April 1, 2016; DOI: 10.3171/2016.4.JNS.AANS2016abstracts

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Arterial injuries after penetrating brain injury in civilians: risk factors on admission head computed tomography

Uttam K. Bodanapally, Nitima Saksobhavivat, Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan, Bizhan Aarabi, and Ashis K. Roy

OBJECT

The object of this study was to determine the specific CT findings of the injury profile in penetrating brain injury (PBI) that are risk factors related to intracranial arterial injuries.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively evaluated admission head CTs and accompanying digital subtraction angiography (DSA) studies from patients with penetrating trauma to the head in the period between January 2005 and December 2012. Two authors reviewed the CT images to determine the presence or absence of 30 injury profile variables and quantified selected variables. The CT characteristics in patients with and without arterial injuries were compared using univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the respective risk factors, independent predictors, and optimal threshold values for the continuous variables.

RESULTS

Fifty-five patients were eligible for study inclusion. The risk factors for an intracranial arterial injury on univariate analysis were an entry wound over the frontobasal-temporal regions, a bihemispheric wound trajectory, a wound trajectory in proximity to the circle of Willis (COW), a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a higher SAH score, an intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and a higher IVH score. A trajectory in proximity to the COW was the best predictor of injury (OR 6.8 and p = 0.005 for all penetrating brain injuries [PBIs]; OR 13.3 and p = 0.001 for gunshot wounds [GSWs]). Significant quantitative variables were higher SAH and IVH scores. An SAH score of 3 (area under the ROC curve [AUC] for all PBIs 0.72; AUC for GSWs 0.71) and an IVH score of 3 (AUC for all PBIs 0.65; AUC for GSWs 0.65) could be used as threshold values to suggest an arterial injury.

CONCLUSIONS

The risk factors identified may help radiologists suggest the possibility of arterial injury and prioritize neurointerventional consultation and potential DSA studies.

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Vascular complications of penetrating brain injury: comparison of helical CT angiography and conventional angiography

Clinical article

Uttam K. Bodanapally, Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan, Alexis R. Boscak, Paul M. Jaffray, Giulia Van der Byl, Ashis K. Roy, David Dreizin, Thorsten R. Fleiter, Stuart E. Mirvis, Jaroslaw Krejza, and Bizhan Aarabi

Object

The authors conducted a study to compare the sensitivity and specificity of helical CT angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detecting intracranial arterial injuries after penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI).

Methods

In a retrospective evaluation of 48 sets of angiograms from 45 consecutive patients with PTBI, 3 readers unaware of the DSA findings reviewed the CTA images to determine the presence or absence of arterial injuries. A fourth reader reviewed all the disagreements and decided among the 3 interpretations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CTA were calculated on a per-injury basis and in a subpopulation of patients with traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs).

Results

Sensitivity of CTA for detecting arterial injuries was 72.7% (95% CI 49.8%–89.3%); specificity, 93.5% (95% CI 78.6%–99.2%); PPV, 88.9% (95% CI 65.3%–98.6%); and NPV, 82.9% (95% CI 66.4%–93.4%). All 7 TICAs were correctly identified by CTA. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CTA in detecting TICAs were 100%. To compare agreement with DSA, the standard of reference, confidence scores categorized as low, intermediate, and high probability yielded an overall effectiveness of 77.8% (95% CI 71.8%–82.9%).

Conclusions

Computed tomography angiography had limited overall sensitivity in detecting arterial injuries in patients with PTBI. However, it was accurate in identifying TICAs, a subgroup of injuries usually managed by either surgical or endovascular approaches, and non-TICA injuries involving the first-order branches of intracranial arteries.

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Predictors of outcome in civilian gunshot wounds to the head

Clinical article

Bizhan Aarabi, Babak Tofighi, Joseph A. Kufera, Jeffrey Hadley, Edward S. Ahn, Carnell Cooper, Jacek M. Malik, Neal J. Naff, Louis Chang, Michael Radley, Ashker Kheder, and Ronald H. Uscinski

Object

Civilian gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) are often deadly, but some patients with open cranial wounds need medical and surgical management and are potentially good candidates for acceptable functional recovery. The authors analyzed predictors of favorable clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 4 and 5) after GSWH over a 24-month period.

Methods

The authors posited 2 questions: First, what percentage of civilians with GSWH died in the state of Maryland in a given period of time? Second, what were the predictors of favorable outcome after GSWH? The authors examined demographic, clinical, imaging, and acute care data for 786 civilians who sustained GSWH. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data.

Results

Of the 786 patients in this series, 712 (91%) died and 74 (9%) completed acute care in 9 trauma centers. Of the 69 patients admitted to one Maryland center, 46 (67%) eventually died. In 48 patients who were resuscitated, the Injury Severity Score was 26.2, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 7.8, and an abnormal pupillary response (APR) to light was present in 41% of patients. Computed tomography indicated midline shift in 17%, obliteration of basal cisterns in 41.3%, intracranial hematomas in 34.8%, and intraventricular hemorrhage in 49% of cases. When analyzed for trajectory, 57.5% of bullet slugs crossed midcoronal, midsagittal, or both planes. Two subsets of admissions were studied: 27 patients (65%) who had poor outcome (25 patients who died and 2 who had severe disability) and 15 patients (35%) who had a favorable outcome when followed for a mean period of 40.6 months. Six patients were lost to follow-up.

Univariate analysis indicated that admission GCS score (p < 0.001), missile trajectory (p < 0.001), surgery (p < 0.001), APR to light (p = 0.002), patency of basal cisterns (p = 0.01), age (p = 0.01), and intraventricular bleed (p = 0.03) had a significant relationship to outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that GCS score and patency of the basal cistern were significant determinants of outcome. Exclusion of GCS score from the regression models indicated missile trajectory and APR to light were significant in determining outcome.

Conclusions

Admission GCS score, trajectory of the missile track, APR to light, and patency of basal cisterns were significant determinants of outcome in civilian GSWH.

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Oral Presentations

2010 AANS Annual Meeting Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 1–5, 2010

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Decompressive Craniectomy

Anthony A. Figaji, A. Graham Fieggen, and Jonathan C. Peter

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Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling due to severe head injury

Bizhan Aarabi, Dale C. Hesdorffer, Edward S. Ahn, Carla Aresco, Thomas M. Scalea, and Howard M. Eisenberg

Object

The aim of this study was to assess outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant brain swelling due to closed traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods

During a 48-month period (March 2000–March 2004), 50 of 967 consecutive patients with closed TBI experienced diffuse brain swelling and underwent decompressive craniectomy, without removal of clots or contusion, to control intracranial pressure (ICP) or to reverse dangerous brain shifts. Diffuse injury was demonstrated in 44 patients, an evacuated mass lesion in four in whom decompressive craniectomy had been performed as a separate procedure, and a nonevacuated mass lesion in two. Decompressive craniectomy was performed urgently in 10 patients before ICP monitoring; in 40 patients the procedure was performed after ICP had become unresponsive to conventional medical management as outlined in the American Association of Neurological Surgeons guidelines. Survivors were followed up for at least 3 months posttreatment to determine their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score.

Decompressive craniectomy lowered ICP to less than 20 mm Hg in 85% of patients. In the 40 patients who had undergone ICP monitoring before decompression, ICP decreased from a mean of 23.9 to 14.4 mm Hg (p < 0.001). Fourteen of 50 patients died, and 16 either remained in a vegetative state (seven patients) or were severely disabled (nine patients). Twenty patients had a good outcome (GOS Score 4–5). Among 30-day survivors, good outcome occurred in 17, 67, and 67% of patients with postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 15, respectively (p < 0.05). Outcome was unaffected by abnormal pupillary response to light, timing of decompressive craniectomy, brain shift as demonstrated on computerized tomography scanning, and patient age, possibly because of the small number of patients in each of the subsets. Complications included hydrocephalus (five patients), hemorrhagic swelling ipsilateral to the craniectomy site (eight patients), and subdural hygroma (25 patients).

Conclusions

Decompressive craniectomy was associated with a better-than-expected functional outcome in patients with medically uncontrollable ICP and/or brain herniation, compared with outcomes in other control cohorts reported on in the literature.

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Intradural extramedullary spinal metastasis

A report of 10 cases

Richard G. Perrin, Kenneth E. Livingston, and Bizhan Aarabi

✓ The management of 10 patients with symptomatic localized intradural extramedullary spinal metastasis is reviewed. The single most common primary source was carcinoma of the breast (four cases). The initial symptom in nine patients was pain, with five patients reporting a characteristically severe cramping discomfort with radicular distribution. All patients underwent laminectomy decompression. At the time of surgery, six of the patients were weak but ambulatory and four were bedridden. Following surgery, four patients enjoyed some measure of pain relief, seven patients became ambulatory, and three remained bedridden. Two patients achieved a “satisfactory” result, and were walking and continent 6 months after surgery. Secondary brain tumors were demonstrated or implicated in nine patients, supporting the concept that the spinal metastases represented tertiary deposits following dissemination via the cerebrospinal fluid.

Symptomatic intradural extramedullary spinal metastasis causes a virulent clinical syndrome with poor prognosis and disappointing outcome after treatment. Given the high incidence of associated cerebral metastatic involvement, total neuraxis radiation and/or chemotherapy should be considered when symptomatic spinal metastasis is discovered to be intradural and extramedullary.

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Dynamics of cerebral edema

The role of an intact vascular bed in the production and propagation of vasogenic brain edema

Bizhan Aarabi and Donlin M. Long

✓ Brain edema was produced in cats by a standardized cortical freezing lesion. With a careful microsurgical technique, the injured cortex was removed as a single piece, either immediately after induction or at 2, 4, or 8 hours after lesion production. The injured brain was either discarded or replaced in its bed. Brain edema and the defect in the blood-brain barrier were assessed by determining percent dry weight, increase in volume of white matter, and spread of Evans' blue by planimetry. The results indicate that 1) if the lesion is removed immediately after production, formation of the expected vasogenic brain edema is completely abolished; 2) replacement of the frozen brain is unable to induce significant increase in permeability of the surrounding blood-brain barrier or a significant amount of brain edema; and 3) if the lesion is removed at 2, 4, or 8 hours with or without replacement, advancement of the edema front and increase in the amount of edema is stopped. It appears that an intact vascular bed is necessary for the extracellular fluid component of brain edema, and that no edemagenic factors exist within the injured brain in this model that influence either the production or propagation of the increased extracellular fluid volume.

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Familial intradural arachnoid cysts

Report of two cases

Bizhan Aarabi, Gavril Pasternak, Orest Hurko, and Donlin M. Long

✓ Two cases of intradural arachnoid cysts are reported in one family. The propositus was a 27-year-old woman with right inframammillary radicular pain and subjective weakness of the lower extremities. Her 57-year-old father was admitted with a progressive, painless paraparesis of 6 years' duration. Intradural arachnoid cysts, at T8–9 and T5–6, respectively, were found in both patients at the time of exploration.