Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral vasospasm (CV) are severe complications of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) contributing to an inferior outcome. Rescue therapies include intra-arterial balloon angioplasty and repetitive and finally continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion.
In the presented case, a young female patient with fulminant refractory DCI and CV, despite induced hypertension and nimodipine application, was treated with three-vessel continuous intra-arterial infusion and additional repetitive angioplasty of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries using a stent retriever, leading to a good clinical outcome. Additional stent retriever dilatation to continuous intra-arterial nimodipine application in three vessel territories may represent a further escalation step in the rescue therapy for severe CV and DCI after SAH. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and SF-36 testing showed satisfactory results 3 months after initial treatment with intra-arterial nimodipine catheters in three vessel territory circulations and additional stent retriever vasodilation of severe CV.
We report a unique rescue strategy involving implantation of an additional intra-arterial catheter into the vertebral artery and repetitive stent retriever dilatations of the middle cerebral and basilar arteries as an extra therapy for continuous intra-arterial nimodipine vaspospasmolytic therapy in three vessel territories, resulting in a very good clinical outcome.