Volumetric growth rates of untreated cavernous sinus meningiomas

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  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; and
  • | 2 Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York
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OBJECTIVE

Meningiomas that arise primarily within the cavernous sinus are often believed to be more indolent in their growth pattern. Despite this perceived growth pattern, disabling symptoms can arise even with small tumors. While research has been done on cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) and their treatment, very little is known about their natural growth rates. With a better understanding of the growth rate of CSM, patient treatment and guidance can be can optimized and individualized. The goal of this study was to determine volumetric growth rates of untreated CSMs.

METHODS

Thirty-seven patients with 166 MR images obtained between May 2004 and September 2019 were reviewed, with a range of 2–13 MR images per patient (average of 4.5 MR images per patient). These scans were obtained over an average follow-up period of 45.9 months (median 33.8, range 2.8–136.9 months). All imaging prior to any intervention was included in this analysis. Volumetric measurements were performed and assessed over time.

RESULTS

The estimated volumetric growth rate was 23.3% per year (95% CI 10.2%–38.0%, p < 0.001), which is equivalent to an estimated volume doubling time (VDT) of 3.3 years (95% CI 2.1–7.1 years). There was no significant relationship between growth rate and patient age (p = 0.09) or between growth rate and patient sex (p = 0.78). The median absolute growth rate was 41% with a range of −1% to 1793%. With a definition of “growth” as an increase of greater than 20% during the observed period, 65% of tumors demonstrated growth within their observation interval. Growth rates for each tumor were calculated and tumors were segmented based on growth rate. Of 37 patients, 22% (8) demonstrated no growth (< 5% annual growth, equivalent to a VDT > 13.9 years), 32% (12) were designated as slow growth (annual growth rate 5%–20%, VDT 3.5–13.9 years), 38% (14) were found to have medium growth (annual growth rate 20%–100%, VDT 0.7–3.5 years), and 8% were considered fast growing (annual growth rate > 100%, VDT < 0.7 years).

CONCLUSIONS

This study evaluated CSM volumetric growth rates. A deeper understanding of the natural history of untreated CSMs allows for better counseling and management of patients.

ABBREVIATIONS

CSM = cavernous sinus meningioma; VDT = volume doubling time.

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