Harvey Cushing’s international visitors

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Münster, Germany;
  • 2 Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and
  • 3 Department of Neurosurgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00
Print or Print + Online

Harvey Cushing is considered the father of neurosurgery, not just for his work within the United States, but also for his global influence through international visitors and trainees. Starting in 1920, the neurosurgical clinic at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, led by Cushing, trained surgeons from all over the globe, many of whom returned home to establish neurosurgical departments and become neurosurgical pioneers themselves. The objective of this vignette is to highlight the importance of Cushing’s international trainees, describe their contributions, and discuss how each had an impact on the development of the practice of neurosurgery worldwide. The authors demonstrate how Cushing provided the impetus for a movement that revolutionized neurology and neurosurgery worldwide. Even today, international cooperation continues to shape the success of our delicate specialty.

ABBREVIATIONS PBBH = Peter Bent Brigham Hospital; WWI = World War I.

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $505.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $600.00

Contributor Notes

Correspondence Eric Suero Molina: University Hospital of Münster, Germany. eric.suero@ukmuenster.de.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online August 21, 2020; DOI: 10.3171/2020.5.JNS193386.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

  • 1

    Annual Report of the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. University Press, Cambridge (Mass); 1915–1920.

  • 2

    Lehner KR, Schulder M. American views of Sir Victor Horsley in the era of Cushing. J Neurosurg. 2019;130(2):337673.

  • 3

    Thorwald J. Im zerbrechlichen Haus der Seele. Droemer Knaur; 1986

  • 4

    Denny-Brown D. Sir Charles Symonds. Ann Neurol. 1979;6(2):137.

  • 5

    Symonds C. Contributions to the clinical study of intracranial aneurysms. Guys Hosp Rep. 1923;72:139158.

  • 6

    Symonds C. Studies in Neurology. Oxford University Press; 1970.

  • 7

    Ross, Sir James Paterson. Plarr’s Lives of the Fellows. Royal College of Surgeons of England. Accessed May 29, 2020. https://livesonline.rcseng.ac.uk/client/en_GB/lives/search/detailnonmodal/ent:$002f$002fSD_ASSET$002f0$002fSD_ASSET:372420/one?qu=ross&qf=ARCHIVES_PERSON_NAME%09Personal+Name%09Ross%2C+Sir+James+Paterson%09Ross%2C+Sir+James+Paterson&te=ASSET

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Obituary. Sir James Paterson Ross, Bt, KCVO, MS, FRCS. BMJ. 1980;281(6234):233.

  • 9

    Horwitz NH. Library: historical perspective. Sir Geoffrey Jefferson (1886–1961). Neurosurgery. 1999;44(1):227231.

  • 10

    Schurr PH. Sir Geoffrey Jefferson (1886–1961): a founder of British neurosurgery. J Med Biogr. 2000;8(3):156161.

  • 11

    Jefferson SG. Selected Papers. Charles C Thomas; 1960.

  • 12

    Liu JK, Das K, Weiss MH, The history and evolution of transsphenoidal surgery. J Neurosurg. 2001;95(6):10831096.

  • 13

    Lanzino G, Laws ER Jr. Pioneers in the development of transsphenoidal surgery: Theodor Kocher, Oskar Hirsch, and Norman Dott. J Neurosurg. 2001;95(6):10971103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Williams ET. Cairns, Sir Hugh William Bell (1896–1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Accessed May 29, 2020. http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/cairns-sir-hugh-william-bell-5464/text9283

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Fulton JF. Harvey Cushing, a Biography. CC Thomas; 1946.

  • 16

    Stienen MN, Serra C, Stieglitz LH, UniversitätsSpital Zürich: 80 years of neurosurgical patient care in Switzerland. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2018;160(1):322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Kerkhofs M, Lavie P. Frédéric Bremer 1892–1982: a pioneer in sleep research. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(5):505514.

  • 18

    Bailey P, Bremer F: Experimental diabetes insipidus. Arch Intern Med. 1921;28(6):773803.

  • 19

    Stoupel N. Prof. Frederic Bremer M. D. (Brussels). Int J Neurol. 1970;8(1):8587.

  • 20

    Noterman J. Paul Martin (1891–1968), pioneer of the neurosurgery in Belgium and cofounder member of the review “Neurochirurgie”. Article in French. Neurochirurgie. 2007;53(5):356360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Brotchi J. History and development of neurosurgery in Belgium. Int Neurosci J. 2015;1(1):e856.

  • 22

    van Bogaert L, Baeten J, Martin P. Abolition des réflexes tendineux par tumeur intra-bulbaire, réapparition de ces réflexes après l’intervention. J Neurol Psychiatry. 1930;30:268269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Martin P. Rapport sur les tumeurs du IVème ventricule au point de vue clinique, oto-neuro-ophtalmologique et neuro-chirurgical. J Neurol Psychiatry. 1930;30:255267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Calliauw L. Perspectives in international neurosurgery: neurosurgery in Belgium. Neurosurgery. 1982;11(1 Pt 1):85.

  • 25

    Androutsos G, Karamanou M, Lymberi M, A neurologist in the origin of European and International neurosurgery: Clovis-Julien-Désiré Vincent (1879–1947). Chirurgia (Bucur). 2011;106(5):567572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Le Beau J. Clovis Vincent. Article in French. Neurochirurgie. 1980;26(5):359367.

  • 27

    Elmaci I, Balak N. Pioneering Turkish neurosurgeon Hami Dilek and the traces of Harvey Cushing’s legacy in his work. J Neurosurg. 2008;108(4):821829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Le Beau J, Tavernier J. Clovis Vincent: His life and main contributions to neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 1950;7(2):148155.

  • 29

    Mathon B, Amelot A, Clemenceau S, Commentary: La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris: the historic cradle of neurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2018;82(6):164174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Philippon J. Histoire de la Neurochirurgie à la Pitié Salpétrière. Hist Sci Med. 1997;31(2):173179.

  • 31

    Kloet A, Krouwer HG, Koehler PJ. American influence on the origins of neurosurgery in the Netherlands. J Neurosurg. 2008;109(2):348355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Groen RJ, Koehler PJ, Kloet A. The role of Harvey Cushing and Walter Dandy in the evolution of modern neurosurgery in the Netherlands, illustrated by their correspondence. J Neurosurg. 2013;118(3):539549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Mohan AG, Săceleanu MV, Marinescu AA, Neurosurgery in Romania in the centenary of the Great Union (1918–2018). Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2018;59(4):12991303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Dumitrascu DL, Shampo MA, Kyle RA. Dumitru Bagdasar—father of Romanian neurosurgery. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996;71(1):31.

  • 35

    Voinescu D, Constantinescu R, Ciurea AV. Dumitru Bagdasar and the American neurosurgery. Proc Rom Acad B. 2017;19(1):5766.

  • 36

    Ciurea AV, Moisa HA, Mohan D. Sofia Ionescu, the first woman neurosurgeon in the world. World Neurosurg. 2013;80(5):650653.

  • 37

    Catalino MP, Laws ER. Exemplary mentorship in action: Harvey Cushing’s trainees from 1912 to 1919. J Neurosurg. Published online February 28, 2020. doi:10.3171/2019.12.JNS192371

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Bliss M. Harvey Cushing: A Life in Surgery. Oxford University Press; 2005.

  • 39

    Davidoff L. Cushing birthday volume. Arch Surg. 1929;18(4):9352045.

  • 40

    Ljunggren B, Fodstad H, Kristiansen K, When Nordic neurosurgery was still in its infancy. Br J Neurosurg. 1987;1(2):207233.

  • 41

    Ljunggren B. Herbert Olivecrona: founder of Swedish neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(1):142149.

  • 42

    Olivecrona H, Lysholm E. Die chirurgische Behandlung von Gehirntumoren. Eine klinische Studie. Verlaf von Julius Springer; 1927.

  • 43

    Horwitz NH. Library: historical perspective. Herbert Olivecrona (1891-1980). Neurosurgery. 1998;43(4):974978.

  • 44

    Taarnhøj P. Eduard Axel Valdemar Busch, M.D., 1899–1982. J Neurosurg. 1983;58(3):313314.

  • 45

    Simpson D. Neurosurgery in the age of Cushing: the achievement of Leonard Lindon. ANZ J Surg. 2012;82(5):311317.


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 611 611 320
Full Text Views 53 53 7
PDF Downloads 32 32 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0