Prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas: preoperative diagnosis of tumor type using serum prolactin and tumor size

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OBJECTIVE

Prolactinoma and nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA) are the most common sellar pathologies, and both can present with hyperprolactinemia. There are no definitive studies analyzing the relationship between the sizes of prolactinomas and NFAs and the serum prolactin level. Current guidelines for serum prolactin level cutoffs to distinguish between pathologies are suboptimal because they fail to consider the adenoma volume. In this study, the authors attempted to describe the relationship between serum prolactin level and prolactinoma volume. They also examined the predictive value that can be gained by considering tumor volume in differentiating prolactinoma from NFA and provide cutoff values based on a large sample of patients.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with prolactinomas (n = 76) and NFAs (n = 217) was performed. Patients were divided into groups based on adenoma volume, and the two pathologies were compared.

RESULTS

A strong correlation was found between prolactinoma volume and serum prolactin level (r = 0.831, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between NFA volume and serum prolactin level (r = −0.020, p = 0.773). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of three different adenoma volume groups was performed and resulted in different serum prolactin level cutoffs for each group. For group 1 (≤ 0.5 cm3), the most accurate cutoff was 43.65 μg/L (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.951); for group 2 (> 0.5 to 4 cm3), 60.05 μg/L (AUC = 0.949); and for group 3 (> 4 cm3), 248.15 μg/L (AUC = 1.0).

CONCLUSIONS

Prolactinoma volume has a significant impact on serum prolactin level, whereas NFA volume does not. This finding indicates that the amount of prolactin-producing tissue is a more important factor regarding serum prolactin level than absolute adenoma volume. Hence, volume should be a determining factor to distinguish between prolactinoma and NFA prior to surgery. Current serum prolactin threshold level guidelines are suboptimal and cannot be generalized across all adenoma volumes.

ABBREVIATIONS AUC = area under the curve; HPT = highest pretreatment; NFA = nonfunctioning adenoma; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; TSS = transsphenoidal surgery.

Article Information

Correspondence Edward R. Laws: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA. elaws@bwh.harvard.edu.

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online June 14, 2019; DOI: 10.3171/2019.3.JNS19121.

Disclosures The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

Figures

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    A: Correlation between serum prolactin level and prolactinoma volume. B: Relationship between serum prolactin level and NFA volume. Figure is available in color online only.

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    A: ROC curve for group 1 adenomas (≤ 0.5 cm3). B: ROC curve for group 2 adenomas (> 0.5 to 4 cm3). C: ROC curve for group 3 adenomas (> 4 cm3). D: ROC curve for all patients. Figure is available in color online only.

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    A: Binomial logistic regression depicting the change in the probability that a lesion represents a prolactinoma when serum prolactin increases and size is held constant. B: Binomial logistic regression showing the change in the probability that a lesion represents an NFA when volume increases and serum prolactin is held constant. Figure is available in color online only.

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