Glioblastoma multiforme occurring in a patient treated with gamma knife surgery

Case report and review of the literature

Abdalla Shamisa Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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 M.D.
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Manohar Bance Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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 M.Sc., M.B., F.R.C.S.(C)
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Sukriti Nag Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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Charles Tator Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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Shun Wong Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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Georg Norén Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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Abhijit Guha Divisions of Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology, and Neuropathology, Department of Radiation Oncology, and Arthur and Sonia Labatts Brain Tumor Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and New England Gamma Knife Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island

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✓ Stereotactic radiosurgery is being increasingly advocated as the primary modality for treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VS). This modality has been shown to arrest tumor growth, with few associated short-term morbidities, and with possibly better hearing and facial nerve preservation rates than microsurgery. Radiation-induced oncogenesis has long been recognized, although stereotactic radiosurgery de novo induction of a secondary tumor has never been clearly described. The authors report on a patient with a VS who did not have neurofibromatosis Type 2 and who underwent gamma knife surgery (GKS). This patient required microsurgical removal of the VS within 8 months because of development of a tumor cyst with associated brainstem compression and progressive hydrocephalus. The operation resulted in clinical stabilization and freedom from tumor recurrence.

Seven and a half years after undergoing GKS, the patient presented with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a new ring-enhancing lesion in the inferior temporal lobe adjacent to the area of radiosurgery, which on craniotomy was confirmed to be a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Despite additional conventional external-beam radiation to the temporal lobe, the GBM has progressed. Whereas this first reported case of a GBM within the scatter field of GKS does not conclusively prove a direct causal link, it does fulfill all of Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced neoplasia, and demands increased vigilance for the potential long-term complications of stereotactic radiosurgery, and reporting of any similar cases.

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