Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: a review of 181 operations on 146 patients with a study on the location of “pain fibers” in the C-2 spinal cord segment of 29 cases

Juan Lahuerta Pain Research Institute and Centre for Pain Relief, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England

Search for other papers by Juan Lahuerta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D., M.F.P.M.
,
David Bowsher Pain Research Institute and Centre for Pain Relief, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England

Search for other papers by David Bowsher in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D., Ph.D., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.Path
,
Simpson Lipton Pain Research Institute and Centre for Pain Relief, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England

Search for other papers by Simpson Lipton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D., F.R.C.A.
, and
Peter H. Buxton Pain Research Institute and Centre for Pain Relief, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England

Search for other papers by Peter H. Buxton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.C.Path
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $536.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $636.00
USD  $45.00
USD  $536.00
USD  $636.00
Print or Print + Online Sign in

✓ The authors present a review of 146 patients who underwent 181 percutaneous cervical cordotomies for intractable pain. In addition, an anatomical-clinical correlation was carried out for 29 of these patients. It was found that the fibers subserving pain sensation in the C-2 segment lie in the anterolateral funiculus between the level of the denticulate ligament and a line drawn perpendicularly from the medial angle of the ventral gray-matter horn to the surface of the cord. The best analgesic results have been obtained by creating lesions that extend 5.0 mm deep to the surface of the cord and destroy about 20% of the hemicord. There is a somatotopic organization with sacral fibers running ventromedially and cervical fibers running dorsolaterally. The authors believe that the ascending fibers subserving the distinct sensations of pain induced by tissue damage and pinprick, although mixed (overlapping) in the anterolateral funiculus of the spinal cord, are physiologically distinct from one another. Whereas some cordotomies, both in the current series and as reported in the literature, may affect these functions differentially, optimum pain relief seems to be obtained only when pinprick sensation is also abolished in the affected segments.

Evoked pain sensation is not abolished by cordotomy, but its threshold is greatly raised. When pathological pain is completely abolished, so is pinprick sensation. However, in a number of cases where pathological pain was only partially alleviated, pinprick sensation remained intact. The significance of these and other cases reported in the literature is discussed. The importance of clinically distinguishing between pain caused by tissue damage and pinprick sensation is emphasized, as well as that between return of pre-existing or new tissue-damage pain and painful dysesthesia.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Amromin GD, & Crue BL: Pathological specimens from cases undergoing posterior approach percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency cervical cordotomy, in Crue BL (ed): Pain Research and Treatment: Further Observations from City of Hope Medical Center. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp 213226 Amromin GD, Crue BL: Pathological specimens from cases undergoing posterior approach percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency cervical cordotomy, in Crue BL (ed): Pain Research and Treatment: Further Observations from City of Hope Medical Center. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp 213–226

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Apkarian AV, & Hodge CJ: A dorsolateral spinothalamic tract in macaque monkey. Pain 37:323333, 1989 Apkarian AV, Hodge CJ: A dorsolateral spinothalamic tract in macaque monkey. Pain 37:323–333, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Apkarian AV, & Hodge CJ: Primate spinothalamic pathways: I. A quantitative study of the cells of origin of the spinothalamic pathway. J Comp Neurol 288:447473, 1989 Apkarian AV, Hodge CJ: Primate spinothalamic pathways: I. A quantitative study of the cells of origin of the spinothalamic pathway. J Comp Neurol 288:447–473, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Apkarian AV, & Hodge CJ: Primate spinothalamic pathways: II. The cells of origin of the dorsolateral and ventral spinothalamic pathways. J Comp Neurol 288:474492, 1989 Apkarian AV, Hodge CJ: Primate spinothalamic pathways: II. The cells of origin of the dorsolateral and ventral spinothalamic pathways. J Comp Neurol 288:474–492, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Bowsher D: Contralateral mirror-image pain following anterolateral cordotomy. Pain 33:6365, 1988 Bowsher D: Contralateral mirror-image pain following anterolateral cordotomy. Pain 33:63–65, 1988

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bowsher D: Les relais des sensibilitiés somesthésique et douloureuse au niveau du tronc cérébral et du thalamus. Toulouse Med 64:965984, 1963 Bowsher D: Les relais des sensibilitiés somesthésique et douloureuse au niveau du tronc cérébral et du thalamus. Toulouse Med 64:965–984, 1963

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bowsher D: Neurogenic pain syndromes and their management. Br Med Bull 47:644666, 1991 Bowsher D: Neurogenic pain syndromes and their management. Br Med Bull 47:644–666, 1991

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bowsher D: Role of the reticular formation in response to noxious stimulation. Pain 2:361378, 1976 Bowsher D: Role of the reticular formation in response to noxious stimulation. Pain 2:361–378, 1976

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Bowsher D: The sub-diencephalic distribution of fibres from the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord in man. Monatsschr Psychiat Neurol 143:7599, 1962 Bowsher D: The sub-diencephalic distribution of fibres from the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord in man. Monatsschr Psychiat Neurol 143:75–99, 1962

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bowsher D: Termination of the central pain pathway in man: the conscious appreciation of pain. Brain 80:606622, 1957 Bowsher D: Termination of the central pain pathway in man: the conscious appreciation of pain. Brain 80:606–622, 1957

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Bowsher D, , Lahuerta J, & Brock L: A note on the relationship between site of interruption and somatosensory thresholds in lesions of human pain pathway, in Schmidt RF, , Schaible HG, & Vahle-Hinz C (eds): Fine Afferent Nerve Fibers and Pain. Weinheim, Ger: VCH, 1987, pp 453459 Bowsher D, Lahuerta J, Brock L: A note on the relationship between site of interruption and somatosensory thresholds in lesions of human pain pathway, in Schmidt RF, Schaible HG, Vahle-Hinz C (eds): Fine Afferent Nerve Fibers and Pain. Weinheim, Ger: VCH, 1987, pp 453–459

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Brenner H, & von Pendl G: Ipsilateraler Chordotomie-effekt — ein seltener Fall einer ungekreutzen Schmerzbahn. Wien Med Wochenschr 116:10411042, 1966 Brenner H, von Pendl G: Ipsilateraler Chordotomie-effekt — ein seltener Fall einer ungekreutzen Schmerzbahn. Wien Med Wochenschr 116:1041–1042, 1966

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Campbell JA: Observations on somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from within the human spinal cord. University of Liverpool, 1985 (Ph.D. Thesis) Campbell JA: Observations on somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from within the human spinal cord. University of Liverpool, 1985 (Ph.D. Thesis)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Campbell JA, & Bowsher D: Electrical activity recorded from within the anterolateral funiculus during percutaneous cordotomy in man. Philos Trans R Soc Lond (Biol) 308:422, 1985 (Abstract) Campbell JA, Bowsher D: Electrical activity recorded from within the anterolateral funiculus during percutaneous cordotomy in man. Philos Trans R Soc Lond (Biol) 308:422, 1985 (Abstract)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Campbell JA, & Lipton S: Intraspinal evoked potentials in man during cervical cordotomy, in Homma S, & Tamaki T (eds): Fundamentals and Clinical Applications of Spinal Cord Monitoring. Tokyo: Saikon, 1984, pp 245252 Campbell JA, Lipton S: Intraspinal evoked potentials in man during cervical cordotomy, in Homma S, Tamaki T (eds): Fundamentals and Clinical Applications of Spinal Cord Monitoring. Tokyo: Saikon, 1984, pp 245–252

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Campbell JA, & Lipton S: Intraspinal somatosensory evoked potentials in man, in Morocutti C, & Rizzo PA (eds): Evoked Potentials: Neurophysiological and Clinical Aspects. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1985, pp 3743 Campbell JA, Lipton S: Intraspinal somatosensory evoked potentials in man, in Morocutti C, Rizzo PA (eds): Evoked Potentials: Neurophysiological and Clinical Aspects. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1985, pp 37–43

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Campbell JA, & Lipton S: Somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from within the anterolateral quadrant of the human spinal cord. Adv Pain Res Ther 5:193196, 1983 Campbell JA, Lipton S: Somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from within the anterolateral quadrant of the human spinal cord. Adv Pain Res Ther 5:193–196, 1983

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Cassinari V, & Pagni CA: Central Pain: A Neurosurgical Survey. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1969 Cassinari V, Pagni CA: Central Pain: A Neurosurgical Survey. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1969

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Cook AW, & Kawakani Y: Commissural myelotomy. J Neurosurg 47:16, 1977 Cook AW, Kawakani Y: Commissural myelotomy. J Neurosurg 47:1–6, 1977

  • 20.

    Cook AW, , Nathan PW, & Smith MC: Sensory consequences of commissural myelotomy. A challenge to traditional anatomical concepts. Brain 107:547568, 1984 Cook AW, Nathan PW, Smith MC: Sensory consequences of commissural myelotomy. A challenge to traditional anatomical concepts. Brain 107:547–568, 1984

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Foerster O, & Gagel O: Die Vorderseitenstrangdurchschneidung beim Menschen. Eine klinisch-physiologischanatomische Studie. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 138:192, 1932 Foerster O, Gagel O: Die Vorderseitenstrangdurchschneidung beim Menschen. Eine klinisch-physiologischanatomische Studie. Z Ges Neurol Psychiatr 138:1–92, 1932

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Frazier CH, & Spiller WG: Section of the anterolateral columns of the spinal cord (chordotomy). Discussion of the physiologic effects and clinical results in a series of eight cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 9:121, 1923 Frazier CH, Spiller WG: Section of the anterolateral columns of the spinal cord (chordotomy). Discussion of the physiologic effects and clinical results in a series of eight cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 9:1–21, 1923

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    French LA, & Peyton WT: Ipsilateral sensory loss following cordotomy. J Neurosurg 5:403404, 1948 French LA, Peyton WT: Ipsilateral sensory loss following cordotomy. J Neurosurg 5:403–404, 1948

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Granum SL: The spinothalamic system of the rat. I. Locations of cells of origin. J Comp Neurol 247:159180, 1986 Granum SL: The spinothalamic system of the rat. I. Locations of cells of origin. J Comp Neurol 247:159–180, 1986

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Gybels JM, & Sweet WH: Neurosurgical Treatment of Persistent Pain. Physiological and Pathological Mechanisms of Human Pain. Basel: S Karger, 1989 Gybels JM, Sweet WH: Neurosurgical Treatment of Persistent Pain. Physiological and Pathological Mechanisms of Human Pain. Basel: S Karger, 1989

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Hitchcock E: Stereotactic cervical myelotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33:224230, 1970 Hitchcock E: Stereotactic cervical myelotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33:224–230, 1970

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Horrax G: Experiences in cordotomy. Arch Surg 18:11401164, 1929 Horrax G: Experiences in cordotomy. Arch Surg 18:1140–1164, 1929

  • 28.

    Humphrey T: Pattern formed at upper spinal cord levels by sensory fibers of spinal and cranial nerves. Relation of this pattern to associated gray matter. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 73:3646, 1955 Humphrey T: Pattern formed at upper spinal cord levels by sensory fibers of spinal and cranial nerves. Relation of this pattern to associated gray matter. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 73:36–46, 1955

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hyndman OR, & van Epps C: Possibility of differential section of the spinothalamic tract. A clinical and histologic study. Arch Surg 38:10361053, 1939 Hyndman OR, van Epps C: Possibility of differential section of the spinothalamic tract. A clinical and histologic study. Arch Surg 38:1036–1053, 1939

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Kahn EA, & Rand RW: On the anatomy of anterolateral cordotomy. J Neurosurg 9:611619, 1952 Kahn EA, Rand RW: On the anatomy of anterolateral cordotomy. J Neurosurg 9:611–619, 1952

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Kerr FWL: Neuroanatomical substrates of nociception in the spinal cord. Pain 1:325356, 1975 Kerr FWL: Neuroanatomical substrates of nociception in the spinal cord. Pain 1:325–356, 1975

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Kerr FWL: The ventral spinothalamic tract and other ascending systems of the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 159:335355, 1975 Kerr FWL: The ventral spinothalamic tract and other ascending systems of the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 159:335–355, 1975

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    King RB: Postchordotomy studies of pain threshold. Neurology 7:610614, 1957 King RB: Postchordotomy studies of pain threshold. Neurology 7:610–614, 1957

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Lahuerta J: El funículo anterolateral de la médula espinal humana en la nocicepción y somestesia. Estudio anatomoclinico y somatosensorial cuantitativo basado en la cordotomía cervical percutánea. University of Navarre, 1990 (M.D. Thesis) Lahuerta J: El funículo anterolateral de la médula espinal humana en la nocicepción y somestesia. Estudio anatomoclinico y somatosensorial cuantitativo basado en la cordotomía cervical percutánea. University of Navarre, 1990 (M.D. Thesis)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Lahuerta J, & Bowsher D: Effect of percutaneous cervical cordotomy on somatosensory thresholds in man: a quantitative study. Philos Trans R Soc Lond (Biol) 308:423, 1985 (Abstract) Lahuerta J, Bowsher D: Effect of percutaneous cervical cordotomy on somatosensory thresholds in man: a quantitative study. Philos Trans R Soc Lond (Biol) 308:423, 1985 (Abstract)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Lahuerta J, , Bowsher D, & Campbell J, et al: Clinical and instrumental evaluation of sensory function before and after percutaneous anterolateral cordotomy at cervical level in man. Pain 42:2330, 1990 Lahuerta J, Bowsher D, Campbell J, et al: Clinical and instrumental evaluation of sensory function before and after percutaneous anterolateral cordotomy at cervical level in man. Pain 42:23–30, 1990

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Lahuerta J, , Buxton P, & Lipton S, et al: The location and function of respiratory fibres in the second cervical spinal cord segment: respiratory dysfunction syndrome after cervical cordotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55:11421145, 1992 Lahuerta J, Buxton P, Lipton S, et al: The location and function of respiratory fibres in the second cervical spinal cord segment: respiratory dysfunction syndrome after cervical cordotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55:1142–1145, 1992

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Lahuerta J, , Lipton S, & Bowsher D: Anatomical correlation in human cutaneous pinprick analgesia and pain relief following unilateral cervical cordotomy. Pain 19 ( Suppl 2): S318, 1984 (Abstract) Lahuerta J, Lipton S, Bowsher D: Anatomical correlation in human cutaneous pinprick analgesia and pain relief following unilateral cervical cordotomy. Pain 19 (Suppl 2):S318, 1984 (Abstract)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Lahuerta J, , Lipton S, & Wells JCD: Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: results and complication in a recent series of 100 patients. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 67:4144, 1985 Lahuerta J, Lipton S, Wells JCD: Percutaneous cervical cordotomy: results and complication in a recent series of 100 patients. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 67:41–44, 1985

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Leijon G, & Bowsher D: Somatosensory findings in central post-stroke pain (CPSP) and controls. Pain 42 ( Suppl 5): S468, 1990 (Abstract) Leijon G, Bowsher D: Somatosensory findings in central post-stroke pain (CPSP) and controls. Pain 42 (Suppl 5):S468, 1990 (Abstract)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Leriche R: Du traitement de la douleur dans les cancèrs abdominaux et pelviens inopérables ou récidivs. Gaz Hop 109:917922, 1936 Leriche R: Du traitement de la douleur dans les cancèrs abdominaux et pelviens inopérables ou récidivs. Gaz Hop 109:917–922, 1936

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Lewis-Jones H, , Smith T, & Bowsher D, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in 36 cases of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Pain 42 ( Suppl 5): S278, 1990 (Abstract) Lewis-Jones H, Smith T, Bowsher D, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in 36 cases of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Pain 42 (Suppl 5):S278, 1990 (Abstract)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Lipton S: Percutaneous cordotomy, in Wall PD, & Melzack R (eds): Textbook of Pain, ed 2. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1989, pp 832839 Lipton S: Percutaneous cordotomy, in Wall PD, Melzack R (eds): Textbook of Pain, ed 2. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1989, pp 832–839

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Lipton S: Percutaneous electrical cordotomy in relief of intractable pain. Br Med J 2:210212, 1968 Lipton S: Percutaneous electrical cordotomy in relief of intractable pain. Br Med J 2:210–212, 1968

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Mehler WR, , Feferman ME, & Nauta WJH: Ascending axon degeneration following anterolateral cordotomy. An experimental study in the monkey. Brain 83:718750, 1960 Mehler WR, Feferman ME, Nauta WJH: Ascending axon degeneration following anterolateral cordotomy. An experimental study in the monkey. Brain 83:718–750, 1960

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Mullan S, , Hekmatpanah J, & Dobben G, et al: Percutaneous, intramedullary cordotomy utilizing the unipolar anodal electrolytic lesion. J Neurosurg 22:548553, 1965 Mullan S, Hekmatpanah J, Dobben G, et al: Percutaneous, intramedullary cordotomy utilizing the unipolar anodal electrolytic lesion. J Neurosurg 22:548–553, 1965

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Nathan PW: Comments on ‘A dorsolateral spinothalamic tract in macaque monkey’ by Apkarian and Hodge. Pain 40:239240, 1990 Nathan PW: Comments on ‘A dorsolateral spinothalamic tract in macaque monkey’ by Apkarian and Hodge. Pain 40:239–240, 1990

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Nathan PW: Reference of sensation at the spinal level. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 19:88100, 1956 Nathan PW: Reference of sensation at the spinal level. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 19:88–100, 1956

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Nathan PW: Results of antero-lateral cordotomy for pain in cancer. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26:353362, 1969 Nathan PW: Results of antero-lateral cordotomy for pain in cancer. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26:353–362, 1969

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: The Babinski response: a review and new observations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 18:250259, 1955 Nathan PW, Smith MC: The Babinski response: a review and new observations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 18:250–259, 1955

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: The centrifugal pathway for micturition within the spinal cord. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:177189, 1958 Nathan PW, Smith MC: The centrifugal pathway for micturition within the spinal cord. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:177–189, 1958

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: Clinico-anatomical correlation in anterolateral cordotomy. Adv Pain Res Ther 3:921926, 1979 Nathan PW, Smith MC: Clinico-anatomical correlation in anterolateral cordotomy. Adv Pain Res Ther 3:921–926, 1979

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: Fasciculi proprii of the spinal cord in man. Review of present knowledge. Brain 82:610668, 1959 Nathan PW, Smith MC: Fasciculi proprii of the spinal cord in man. Review of present knowledge. Brain 82:610–668, 1959

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: Long descending tracts in man. I. Review of present knowledge. Brain 78:248303, 1955 Nathan PW, Smith MC: Long descending tracts in man. I. Review of present knowledge. Brain 78:248–303, 1955

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Nathan PW, & Smith MC: Some tracts of the anterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, in Knighton RS, & Dumke PR (eds): Pain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966, pp 4757 Nathan PW, Smith MC: Some tracts of the anterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, in Knighton RS, Dumke PR (eds): Pain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966, pp 47–57

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Noordenbos W, & Wall PD: Diverse sensory functions with an almost totally divided spinal cord. A case of spinal cord transection with preservation of part of one anterolateral quadrant. Pain 2:185195, 1976 Noordenbos W, Wall PD: Diverse sensory functions with an almost totally divided spinal cord. A case of spinal cord transection with preservation of part of one anterolateral quadrant. Pain 2:185–195, 1976

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Papo I, & Caruselli G: Le seuil de la sensibilité douloureuse après cordotomie spinothalamique. Neurochirurgie 16:513524, 1970 Papo I, Caruselli G: Le seuil de la sensibilité douloureuse après cordotomie spinothalamique. Neurochirurgie 16:513–524, 1970

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Peet MM: The control of intractable pain in lumbar region, pelvis and lower extremities. By section of the anterolateral columns of the spinal cord (chordotomy). Arch Surg 13:153204, 1926 Peet MM: The control of intractable pain in lumbar region, pelvis and lower extremities. By section of the anterolateral columns of the spinal cord (chordotomy). Arch Surg 13:153–204, 1926

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Perese DM, & Fracasso JE: Anatomical considerations in surgery of the spinal cord. A study of vessels and measurements of the cord. J Neurosurg 16:314325, 1959 Perese DM, Fracasso JE: Anatomical considerations in surgery of the spinal cord. A study of vessels and measurements of the cord. J Neurosurg 16:314–325, 1959

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Petit-Dutaillis D: A propos des indications de la cordotomie (cordotomie au lieu d'élection et cordotomie cervicale haute). Rev Neurol 68:347352, 1937 Petit-Dutaillis D: A propos des indications de la cordotomie (cordotomie au lieu d'élection et cordotomie cervicale haute). Rev Neurol 68:347–352, 1937

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Putnam TJ: Myelotomy of the commissure. A new method of treatment for pain in the upper extremities. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 32:11891193, 1934 Putnam TJ: Myelotomy of the commissure. A new method of treatment for pain in the upper extremities. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 32:1189–1193, 1934

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Ralston HJ III, & Ralston DD: The primate dorsal spinothalamic tract: evidence for a specific termination in the posterior nuclei (Po/SG) of the thalamus. Pain 48:107118, 1992 Ralston HJ III, Ralston DD: The primate dorsal spinothalamic tract: evidence for a specific termination in the posterior nuclei (Po/SG) of the thalamus. Pain 48:107–118, 1992

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Riley HA: An Atlas of the Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Spinal Cord. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1943 Riley HA: An Atlas of the Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem and Spinal Cord. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1943

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Rosomoff HL: Bilateral percutaneous cervical radiofrequency cordotomy. J Neurosurg 31:4146, 1969 Rosomoff HL: Bilateral percutaneous cervical radiofrequency cordotomy. J Neurosurg 31:41–46, 1969

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Schneider RJ, & Paul RL: Body representation in the anterolateral funiculus as reconstructed by percutaneous cordotomies for benign intractable pain. Adv Pain Res Ther 1:267270, 1976 Schneider RJ, Paul RL: Body representation in the anterolateral funiculus as reconstructed by percutaneous cordotomies for benign intractable pain. Adv Pain Res Ther 1:267–270, 1976

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Schvarcz JR: Stereotactic extralemniscal myelotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:5357, 1976 Schvarcz JR: Stereotactic extralemniscal myelotomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39:53–57, 1976

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Šourek K: Commissural myelotomy. J Neurosurg 31:524527, 1969 Šourek K: Commissural myelotomy. J Neurosurg 31:524–527, 1969

  • 68.

    Stevens RT, , Apkarian AV, & Hodge CJ: The location of spinothalamic axons within spinal cord white matter in cat and squirrel monkey. Somatosens Mot Res 8:97102, 1991 Stevens RT, Apkarian AV, Hodge CJ: The location of spinothalamic axons within spinal cord white matter in cat and squirrel monkey. Somatosens Mot Res 8:97–102, 1991

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Sweet WH, & Poletti CE: Appendix: open cervical and thoracic cordotomy, in Wall PD, & Melzack R (eds): Textbook of Pain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1984, pp 624631 Sweet WH, Poletti CE: Appendix: open cervical and thoracic cordotomy, in Wall PD, Melzack R (eds): Textbook of Pain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1984, pp 624–631

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Taren JA, , Kahn EA, & Humphrey T: The surgery of pain, in Kahn EA, , Crosby EC, & Schneider RC, et al (eds): Correlative Neurosurgery, ed 2. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1969, pp 464508 Taren JA, Kahn EA, Humphrey T: The surgery of pain, in Kahn EA, Crosby EC, Schneider RC, et al (eds): Correlative Neurosurgery, ed 2. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1969, pp 464–508

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Tasker R: Percutaneous cordotomy: the lateral high cervical technique, in Schmidek HH, & Sweet WH (eds): Operative Neurosurgical Techniques, Indications, Methods, and Results, ed 2. Orlando, Fla: Grune & Stratton, 1988, pp 11911205 Tasker R: Percutaneous cordotomy: the lateral high cervical technique, in Schmidek HH, Sweet WH (eds): Operative Neurosurgical Techniques, Indications, Methods, and Results, ed 2. Orlando, Fla: Grune & Stratton, 1988, pp 1191–1205

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Vierck CJ, , Greenspan JD, & Ritz LA, et al: The spinal pathways contributing to the ascending conduction and descending modulation of pain sensation and reactions, in Yaksh TL (ed): Spinal Afferent Processing. New York: Plenum Press, 1986, pp 275329 Vierck CJ, Greenspan JD, Ritz LA, et al: The spinal pathways contributing to the ascending conduction and descending modulation of pain sensation and reactions, in Yaksh TL (ed): Spinal Afferent Processing. New York: Plenum Press, 1986, pp 275–329

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Vierck CJ Jr, , Greenspan JD, & Ritz LA: Long-term changes in purposive and reflexive responses to nociceptive stimulation following anterolateral chordotomy. J Neurosci 10:20772095, 1990 Vierck CJ Jr, Greenspan JD, Ritz LA: Long-term changes in purposive and reflexive responses to nociceptive stimulation following anterolateral chordotomy. J Neurosci 10:2077–2095, 1990

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    White JC, & Sweet WH: Anterolateral cordotomy: open versus closed comparison of end results. Adv Pain Res Ther 3:911919, 1979 White JC, Sweet WH: Anterolateral cordotomy: open versus closed comparison of end results. Adv Pain Res Ther 3:911–919, 1979

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    White JC, & Sweet WH: Pain and the Neurosurgeon. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1969 White JC, Sweet WH: Pain and the Neurosurgeon. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1969

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    White JC, & Sweet WH: Pain. Its Mechanism and Neurosurgical Control. Springfield Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1955 White JC, Sweet WH: Pain. Its Mechanism and Neurosurgical Control. Springfield Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1955

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 719 113 12
Full Text Views 248 11 0
PDF Downloads 149 15 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0