✓ A 10-month-old child with achondroplasia with progressive head enlargement, ventriculomegaly, and wide subarachnoid spaces over the hemispheres was referred for evaluation. A steady-state lumbar infusion test revealed increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow resistance (14 mm Hg/ml/min), and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated bilateral venous outflow obstruction due to stenosis of the jugular foramen. Surgical decompression by opening the right jugular foramen relieved the clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. During the following year, the patient's head enlargement was moderate with relative normalization of size. Repeat DSA demonstrated improved venous runoff on the right side, and a steady-state lumbar infusion test demonstrated reduced CSF outflow resistance (10 mm Hg/ml/min). Venous decompression is causal therapy and may prove to be preferable to shunting in children with hydrocephalus and bilateral stenosis of the jugular foramen.
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