A 10-year experience in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

Comparison of percutaneous stereotaxic rhizotomy and posterior fossa exploration

Harry van Loveren Department of Neurosurgery, Christ Hospital, and Section of Neurosurgery, Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio

Search for other papers by Harry van Loveren in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D.
,
John M. Tew Jr. Department of Neurosurgery, Christ Hospital, and Section of Neurosurgery, Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio

Search for other papers by John M. Tew Jr. in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 M.D.
,
Jeffrey T. Keller Department of Neurosurgery, Christ Hospital, and Section of Neurosurgery, Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio

Search for other papers by Jeffrey T. Keller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Ph.D.
, and
Mary A. Nurre Department of Neurosurgery, Christ Hospital, and Section of Neurosurgery, Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio

Search for other papers by Mary A. Nurre in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 R.N., C.N.R.N.
Restricted access

Purchase Now

USD  $45.00

JNS + Pediatrics - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $536.00

JNS + Pediatrics + Spine - 1 year subscription bundle (Individuals Only)

USD  $636.00
USD  $45.00
USD  $536.00
USD  $636.00
Print or Print + Online Sign in

✓ Of 1000 patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia who were treated during the last 10 years, 90% had an initial favorable response to medical therapy, but 75% (750 patients) failed to achieve satisfactory long-term relief. Of these, 700 patients were treated by percutaneous stereotaxic rhizotomy (PSR) and 50 were selected for posterior fossa exploration (PFE).

Of the 50 patients undergoing PFE, 82% had neurovascular contact at the trigeminal root entry zone, but only 46% were judged to have had significant neurovascular compression. Exploration was negative in 16% of patients and revealed neural compression by bone in 2%. Patients with neurovascular compression were treated by microvascular decompression (MVD); all other patients with exploratory surgery underwent partial sensory rhizotomy. At 3 years after PFE, 84% of patients are pain-free. Results are excellent in 68%, good in 12%, fair in 4%; 12% had a recurrence of their neuralgia. The 700 patients treated by PSR have been followed for 6 years. Results are excellent in 61%, good in 13%, fair in 5%, and poor in 1%; 20% had a recurrence.

This study indicates that there is no significant difference in results between PSR and PFE in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. The concept that neurovascular compression is a mechanical factor in the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia was supported, but neurovascular compression was less common than previously reported. Percutaneous stereotaxic rhizotomy is a less formidable procedure than PFE, and is easily repeated. Recent technical advances have improved the results obtained with PSR. Therefore, PSR remains the procedure of choice for the majority of patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Apfelbaum RI: A comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal neurolysis and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve for the treatment of tic douloureux. Neurosurgery 1:1621, 1977 Apfelbaum RI: A comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal neurolysis and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve for the treatment of tic douloureux. Neurosurgery 1:16–21, 1977

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Beaver DL, , Moses HL, & Ganote CE: Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. II. Autopsy study of human ganglia. Arch Pathol 79:557570, 1965 Beaver DL, Moses HL, Ganote CE: Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. II. Autopsy study of human ganglia. Arch Pathol 79:557–570, 1965

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Beaver DL, , Moses HL, & Ganote CE: Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. III. Trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Pathol 79:571582, 1965 Beaver DL, Moses HL, Ganote CE: Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. III. Trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Pathol 79:571–582, 1965

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Braham J, & Saia A: Phenytoin in the treatment of trigeminal and other neuralgias. Lancet 2:892893, 1960 Braham J, Saia A: Phenytoin in the treatment of trigeminal and other neuralgias. Lancet 2:892–893, 1960

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Brodkey JS, , Miyazaki Y, & Ervin FR, et al: Reversible heat lesions with radiofrequency current. A method of stereotactic localization. J Neurosurg 21:4953, 1964 Brodkey JS, Miyazaki Y, Ervin FR, et al: Reversible heat lesions with radiofrequency current. A method of stereotactic localization. J Neurosurg 21:49–53, 1964

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Burchiel KJ: Abnormal impulse generation in focally demyelinated trigeminal roots. J Neurosurg 53:674683, 1980 Burchiel KJ: Abnormal impulse generation in focally demyelinated trigeminal roots. J Neurosurg 53:674–683, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Burchiel KJ, , Steege TD, & Howe JF, et al: Comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency gangliolysis and microvascular decompression for the surgical management of tic douloureux. Neurosurgery 9:111119, 1981 Burchiel KJ, Steege TD, Howe JF, et al: Comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency gangliolysis and microvascular decompression for the surgical management of tic douloureux. Neurosurgery 9:111–119, 1981

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Clarke CRA, & Harrison MJG: Neurologic manifestations of Paget's disease. J Neurol Sci 38:171178, 1978 Clarke CRA, Harrison MJG: Neurologic manifestations of Paget's disease. J Neurol Sci 38:171–178, 1978

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Coggeshall RE: Afferent fibers in the ventral root. Neurosurgery 4:443448, 1979 Coggeshall RE: Afferent fibers in the ventral root. Neurosurgery 4:443–448, 1979

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Coggeshall RE, , Appelbaum ML, & Fazen M, et al: Unmyelinated axons in human ventral roots, a possible explanation for the failure of dorsal rhizotomy to relieve pain. Brain 98:157166, 1975 Coggeshall RE, Appelbaum ML, Fazen M, et al: Unmyelinated axons in human ventral roots, a possible explanation for the failure of dorsal rhizotomy to relieve pain. Brain 98:157–166, 1975

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Crawford JV, & Walker AE: Surgery for pain, in Walker AE (ed): A History of Neurological Surgery. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1951, pp 308330 Crawford JV, Walker AE: Surgery for pain, in Walker AE (ed): A History of Neurological Surgery. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1951, pp 308–330

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Dandy WE: Concerning the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. Am J Surg 24:447455, 1934 Dandy WE: Concerning the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. Am J Surg 24:447–455, 1934

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Dandy WE: An operation for the cure of tic douloureux: partial section of the sensory root at the pons. Arch Surg 18:687734, 1929 Dandy WE: An operation for the cure of tic douloureux: partial section of the sensory root at the pons. Arch Surg 18:687–734, 1929

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Dott NM: Discussion on facial pain. Proc R Soc Med (Biol) 44:10341037, 1951 Dott NM: Discussion on facial pain. Proc R Soc Med (Biol) 44:1034–1037, 1951

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Eisenbrey AB, & Hegarty WM: Trigeminal neuralgia and arteriovenous aneurysm of the cerebellopontine angle. J Neurosurg 13:647649, 1956 Eisenbrey AB, Hegarty WM: Trigeminal neuralgia and arteriovenous aneurysm of the cerebellopontine angle. J Neurosurg 13:647–649, 1956

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Emmons WF, & Rhoton AL Jr: Subdivision of the trigeminal sensory root. Experimental study in the monkey. J Neurosurg 35:585591, 1971 Emmons WF, Rhoton AL Jr: Subdivision of the trigeminal sensory root. Experimental study in the monkey. J Neurosurg 35:585–591, 1971

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ferguson GG, , Brett DC, & Peerless SJ, et al: Trigeminal neuralgia: a comparison of the results of percutaneous rhizotomy and microvascular decompression. Can J Neurol Sci 8:207214, 1981 Ferguson GG, Brett DC, Peerless SJ, et al: Trigeminal neuralgia: a comparison of the results of percutaneous rhizotomy and microvascular decompression. Can J Neurol Sci 8:207–214, 1981

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Frigyesi TL, , Siegfried J, & Broggi G: The selective vulnerability of evoked potentials in the trigeminal sensory root to graded thermocoagulation. Exp Neurol 49:1121, 1975 Frigyesi TL, Siegfried J, Broggi G: The selective vulnerability of evoked potentials in the trigeminal sensory root to graded thermocoagulation. Exp Neurol 49:11–21, 1975

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Fromm GH, , Terrence CF, & Chattha AS, et al: Baclofen in trigeminal neuralgia. Its effect on the spinal trigeminal nucleus: a pilot study. Arch Neurol 37:768771, 1980 Fromm GH, Terrence CF, Chattha AS, et al: Baclofen in trigeminal neuralgia. Its effect on the spinal trigeminal nucleus: a pilot study. Arch Neurol 37:768–771, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gardner WJ: Concerning the mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg 19:947958, 1962 Gardner WJ: Concerning the mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg 19:947–958, 1962

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Gardner WJ: Trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 15:156, 1968 Gardner WJ: Trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 15:1–56, 1968

  • 22.

    Gardner WJ, & Miklos MV: Response of trigeminal neuralgia to “decompression” of sensory root. Discussion of cause of trigeminal neuralgia. JAMA 170:17731776, 1959 Gardner WJ, Miklos MV: Response of trigeminal neuralgia to “decompression” of sensory root. Discussion of cause of trigeminal neuralgia. JAMA 170:1773–1776, 1959

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Gardner WJ, , Todd EM, & Pinto JP: Roentgenographic findings in trigeminal neuralgia. AJR 76:346350, 1956 Gardner WJ, Todd EM, Pinto JP: Roentgenographic findings in trigeminal neuralgia. AJR 76:346–350, 1956

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Gudmundsson K, , Rhoton AL Jr, & Rushton JG: Detailed anatomy of the intracranial portion of the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 35:592600, 1971 Gudmundsson K, Rhoton AL Jr, Rushton JG: Detailed anatomy of the intracranial portion of the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 35:592–600, 1971

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hardy DG, & Rhoton AL Jr: Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 49:669678, 1978 Hardy DG, Rhoton AL Jr: Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 49:669–678, 1978

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Harris W: An analysis of 1,433 cases of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (trigeminal-tic) and the end-results of gasserian alcohol injection. Brain 63:209224, 1940 Harris W: An analysis of 1,433 cases of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (trigeminal-tic) and the end-results of gasserian alcohol injection. Brain 63:209–224, 1940

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Hosobuchi Y: The majority of unmyelinated afferent axons in human ventral roots probably conduct pain. Pain 8:167180, 1980 Hosobuchi Y: The majority of unmyelinated afferent axons in human ventral roots probably conduct pain. Pain 8:167–180, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Jaeger R: The relief of tic douloureux (trigeminal tic) and other pains of fifth cranial nerve by injection of hot water into gasserian ganglion. J Am Geriatr Soc 3:416423, 1955 Jaeger R: The relief of tic douloureux (trigeminal tic) and other pains of fifth cranial nerve by injection of hot water into gasserian ganglion. J Am Geriatr Soc 3:416–423, 1955

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Jannetta PJ: Microsurgical approach to the trigeminal nerve for tic douloureux. Prog Neurol Surg 7:180200, 1976 Jannetta PJ: Microsurgical approach to the trigeminal nerve for tic douloureux. Prog Neurol Surg 7:180–200, 1976

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Jannetta PJ: Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease. Ann Surg 192:518525, 1980 Jannetta PJ: Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease. Ann Surg 192:518–525, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Jannetta PJ, & Rand RW: Transtentorial retrogasserian rhizotomy in trigeminal neuralgia by microneurosurgical technique. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 31:9399, 1966 Jannetta PJ, Rand RW: Transtentorial retrogasserian rhizotomy in trigeminal neuralgia by microneurosurgical technique. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 31:93–99, 1966

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Johnson MC, & Salmon JH: Arteriovenous malformation presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. Case report. J Neurosurg 29:287289, 1968 Johnson MC, Salmon JH: Arteriovenous malformation presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. Case report. J Neurosurg 29:287–289, 1968

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Kerr FWL: Pathology of trigeminal neuralgia: light and electron microscopic observations. J Neurosurg 26:151156, 1967 Kerr FWL: Pathology of trigeminal neuralgia: light and electron microscopic observations. J Neurosurg 26:151–156, 1967

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kerr FWL, & Miller RH: The pathology of trigeminal neuralgia. Electron microscopic studies. Arch Neurol 15:308319, 1966 Kerr FWL, Miller RH: The pathology of trigeminal neuralgia. Electron microscopic studies. Arch Neurol 15:308–319, 1966

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Kirschner M: Die Behandlung der Trigeminusneuralgie (nach Erfahrungen an 1113 Kranken). MMW 89:235239, 1942 Kirschner M: Die Behandlung der Trigeminusneuralgie (nach Erfahrungen an 1113 Kranken). MMW 89:235–239, 1942

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kirschner M: Electrocoagulation des ganglion gasseri. Zentralbl Chir 59:28412843, 1932 Kirschner M: Electrocoagulation des ganglion gasseri. Zentralbl Chir 59:2841–2843, 1932

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Lazar ML, & Kirkpatrick JB: Trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis: demonstration of the plaque in an operative case. Neurosurgery 5:711717, 1979 Lazar ML, Kirkpatrick JB: Trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis: demonstration of the plaque in an operative case. Neurosurgery 5:711–717, 1979

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Letcher FS, & Goldring S: The effect of radiofrequency current and heat on peripheral nerve action potential in the cat. J Neurosurg 29:4247, 1968 Letcher FS, Goldring S: The effect of radiofrequency current and heat on peripheral nerve action potential in the cat. J Neurosurg 29:42–47, 1968

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Lewy FH, & Grant FC: Physiopathologic and pathoanatomic aspects of major trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 40:11261134, 1938 Lewy FH, Grant FC: Physiopathologic and pathoanatomic aspects of major trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 40:1126–1134, 1938

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Malis LI: Petrous ridge compression and its surgical correction. J Neurosurg 26:163167, 1967 Malis LI: Petrous ridge compression and its surgical correction. J Neurosurg 26:163–167, 1967

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Rushton JG, & MacDonald HNA: Trigeminal neuralgia. Special considerations of nonsurgical treatment. JAMA 165:437440, 1957 Rushton JG, MacDonald HNA: Trigeminal neuralgia. Special considerations of nonsurgical treatment. JAMA 165:437–440, 1957

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Rushton JG, & Olafson RA: Trigeminal neuralgia associated with multiple sclerosis. Report of 35 cases. Arch Neurol 13:383386, 1965 Rushton JG, Olafson RA: Trigeminal neuralgia associated with multiple sclerosis. Report of 35 cases. Arch Neurol 13:383–386, 1965

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Saunders RL, & Sachs E Jr: Relation of the accessory rootlets of the trigeminal nerve to its motor root. A microsurgical autopsy study. J Neurosurg 33:317324, 1970 Saunders RL, Sachs E Jr: Relation of the accessory rootlets of the trigeminal nerve to its motor root. A microsurgical autopsy study. J Neurosurg 33:317–324, 1970

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Sharr MM, & Garfield JS: The place of ganglion or root alcohol injection in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40:286290, 1977 Sharr MM, Garfield JS: The place of ganglion or root alcohol injection in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40:286–290, 1977

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Smith DG, & Mumford JM: Petrous angle and trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 8:269277, 1980 Smith DG, Mumford JM: Petrous angle and trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 8:269–277, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Smith HP, , McWhorter JM, & Challa VR: Radiofrequency neurolysis in a clinical model. Neuropathological correlation. J Neurosurg 55:246253, 1981 Smith HP, McWhorter JM, Challa VR: Radiofrequency neurolysis in a clinical model. Neuropathological correlation. J Neurosurg 55:246–253, 1981

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Sobel D, , Norman D, & Yorke CH, et al: Radiography of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. AJR 135:9395, 1980 Sobel D, Norman D, Yorke CH, et al: Radiography of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. AJR 135:93–95, 1980

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Stookey B, & Ransohoff J: Trigeminal Neuralgia. Its History and Treatment. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1959, pp 132166 Stookey B, Ransohoff J: Trigeminal Neuralgia. Its History and Treatment. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1959, pp 132–166

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Sweet WH: Controlled thermocoagulation of trigeminal rootlets in man, in Morley TP (ed): Current Controversies in Neurosurgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1976, pp 546550 Sweet WH: Controlled thermocoagulation of trigeminal rootlets in man, in Morley TP (ed): Current Controversies in Neurosurgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1976, pp 546–550

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Sweet WH, & Mark VH: Unipolar anodal electrolytic lesions in the brain of man and cat. Report of five human cases with electrically produced bulbar or mesencephalic tractotomies. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 70:224234, 1953 Sweet WH, Mark VH: Unipolar anodal electrolytic lesions in the brain of man and cat. Report of five human cases with electrically produced bulbar or mesencephalic tractotomies. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 70:224–234, 1953

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Sweet WH, , Mark VH, & Hamlin H: Radiofrequency lesions in the central nervous system of man and cat: including case reports of eight bulbar pain-tract interruptions. J Neurosurg 17:213225, 1960 Sweet WH, Mark VH, Hamlin H: Radiofrequency lesions in the central nervous system of man and cat: including case reports of eight bulbar pain-tract interruptions. J Neurosurg 17:213–225, 1960

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Sweet WH, & Wepsic JG: Controlled thermocoagulation of trigeminal ganglion and rootlets for differential destruction of pain fibers. Part 1. Trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 40:143156, 1974 Sweet WH, Wepsic JG: Controlled thermocoagulation of trigeminal ganglion and rootlets for differential destruction of pain fibers. Part 1. Trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 40:143–156, 1974

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Taylor JC: Tegretol in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 29:478479, 1966 (Proceedings) Taylor JC: Tegretol in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 29:478–479, 1966 (Proceedings)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Tew JM, & Keller JT: The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by percutaneous radiofrequency technique. Clin Neurosurg 24:557578, 1977 Tew JM, Keller JT: The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by percutaneous radiofrequency technique. Clin Neurosurg 24:557–578, 1977

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Tew JM, , Tobler WD, & van Loveren H: Percutaneous rhizotomy in the treatment of intractable facial pain (trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagal nerves), in Schmidek HH, & Sweet WH (eds): Operative Neurosurgical Techniques. New York: Grune and Stratton (In press) Tew JM, Tobler WD, van Loveren H: Percutaneous rhizotomy in the treatment of intractable facial pain (trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, and vagal nerves), in Schmidek HH, Sweet WH (eds): Operative Neurosurgical Techniques. New York: Grune and Stratton (In press)

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Waga S, , Morikawa A, & Kojima T: Trigeminal neuralgia: compression of the trigeminal nerve by an elongated and dilated basilar artery. Surg Neurol 11:1316, 1979 Waga S, Morikawa A, Kojima T: Trigeminal neuralgia: compression of the trigeminal nerve by an elongated and dilated basilar artery. Surg Neurol 11:13–16, 1979

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Wilson CB, , Yorke C, & Prioleau G: Microsurgical vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. West J Med 132:481484, 1980 Wilson CB, Yorke C, Prioleau G: Microsurgical vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. West J Med 132:481–484, 1980

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Young RF, & Kruger L: Axonal transport studies of the trigeminal nerve roots of the cat. With special reference to afferent contributions to the portio minor. J Neurosurg 54:208212, 1981 Young RF, Kruger L: Axonal transport studies of the trigeminal nerve roots of the cat. With special reference to afferent contributions to the portio minor. J Neurosurg 54:208–212, 1981

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Young RF, & Stevens R: Unmyelinated axons in the trigeminal motor root of human and cat. J Comp Neurol 183:205214, 1979 Young RF, Stevens R: Unmyelinated axons in the trigeminal motor root of human and cat. J Comp Neurol 183:205–214, 1979

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1253 167 14
Full Text Views 504 33 0
PDF Downloads 289 17 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0