Chronic subdural hematomas: a review

Restricted access

✓ Present knowledge of the still controversial pathogenetic, ultrastructural, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of chronic subdural hematomas is reviewed.

Article Information

Address reprint requests to: Thomas-Marc Markwalder, M.D., Neurochirurgische Klinik, Inselspital, CH — 3008 Bern, Switzerland.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

Headings

References

1.

Ambrosetto C: Post-traumatic subdural hematoma. Further observations on nonsurgical treatment. Arch Neurol 6:2872921962Ambrosetto C: Post-traumatic subdural hematoma. Further observations on nonsurgical treatment. Arch Neurol 6:287–292 1962

2.

Apfelbaum RIGuthkelch ANShulman K: Experimental production of subdural hematomas. J Neurosurg 40:3363461974Apfelbaum RI Guthkelch AN Shulman K: Experimental production of subdural hematomas. J Neurosurg 40:336–346 1974

3.

Aronson SMOkazaki H: A study of some factors modifying response of cerebral tissue to subdural hematomata. J Neurosurg 20:89931963Aronson SM Okazaki H: A study of some factors modifying response of cerebral tissue to subdural hematomata. J Neurosurg 20:89–93 1963

4.

Arseni CIonescu SDinu M: Intracranial hypotension, an etiologic factor of subdural hematoma (chronic subdural hematoma following spinal subarachnoid block anesthesia). Rev Roum Neurol 7:2832861970Arseni C Ionescu S Dinu M: Intracranial hypotension an etiologic factor of subdural hematoma (chronic subdural hematoma following spinal subarachnoid block anesthesia). Rev Roum Neurol 7:283–286 1970

5.

Bassett RCLemmen LJ: Subdural hematoma associated with bleeding intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 9:4434501952Bassett RC Lemmen LJ: Subdural hematoma associated with bleeding intracranial aneurysm. J Neurosurg 9:443–450 1952

6.

Bender MB: Recovery from subdural hematoma without surgery. J Mt Sinai Hosp 27:52581960Bender MB: Recovery from subdural hematoma without surgery. J Mt Sinai Hosp 27:52–58 1960

7.

Bender MBChristoff N: Nonsurgical treatment of subdural hematomas. Arch Neurol 31:73791974Bender MB Christoff N: Nonsurgical treatment of subdural hematomas. Arch Neurol 31:73–79 1974

8.

Bergström MEricson KLevander Bet al: Computed tomography of cranial subdural and epidural hematomas: variation of attenuation related to time and clinical events such as rebleeding. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:4494551977Bergström M Ericson K Levander B et al: Computed tomography of cranial subdural and epidural hematomas: variation of attenuation related to time and clinical events such as rebleeding. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:449–455 1977

9.

Bergström MEricson KLevander Bet al: Variation with time of the attenuation values of intracranial hematomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:57631977Bergström M Ericson K Levander B et al: Variation with time of the attenuation values of intracranial hematomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1:57–63 1977

10.

Bingas BMeese M: Subdurales Hämatom seltener Atiologie (Fallmitteilung). Nervenarzt 37:1751771966Bingas B Meese M: Subdurales Hämatom seltener Atiologie (Fallmitteilung). Nervenarzt 37:175–177 1966

11.

Boop WC JrChou SNFrench LA: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm complicated by subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 18:8348361961Boop WC Jr Chou SN French LA: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm complicated by subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 18:834–836 1961

12.

Braun W: Ein subdurales Haematom als Folge einer metastatischen Karzinomatose der harten Hirnhaut. Zbl Neurochir 23:2102151963Braun W: Ein subdurales Haematom als Folge einer metastatischen Karzinomatose der harten Hirnhaut.Zbl Neurochir 23:210–215 1963

13.

Bucy PC: Subdural hematoma. Ill Med J 82:3003101942Bucy PC: Subdural hematoma. Ill Med J 82:300–310 1942

14.

Burton C: The management of chronic subdural hematoma using a compact hand twist drill. Milit Med 133:8918951968Burton C: The management of chronic subdural hematoma using a compact hand twist drill. Milit Med 133:891–895 1968

15.

Calkins RAVan Allen MWSahs AL: Subdural hematoma following pneumoencephalography. Case report. J Neurosurg 27:56591967Calkins RA Van Allen MW Sahs AL: Subdural hematoma following pneumoencephalography. Case report. J Neurosurg 27:56–59 1967

16.

Chawla JG: Subdural haemorrhage: a complication of anticoagulant therapy. Guys Hosp Rep:75781968Chawla JG: Subdural haemorrhage: a complication of anticoagulant therapy. Guys Hosp Rep:75–78 1968

17.

Chokroverty SMayo CM: Spontaneous resolution of subdural haematoma. Dis Nerv Syst 29:7047061968Chokroverty S Mayo CM: Spontaneous resolution of subdural haematoma. Dis Nerv Syst 29:704–706 1968

18.

Christensen EHusby J: Pathologie der intracraniellen Blutungen in Olivecrona HTönnis W (eds): Handbuch der Neurochirurgie Bd III. Berlin: Springer1956 pp 703736Christensen E Husby J: Pathologie der intracraniellen Blutungen in Olivecrona H Tönnis W (eds): Handbuch der Neurochirurgie Bd III. Berlin: Springer 1956 pp 703–736

19.

Chusid JGde Gutierrez-Mahoney CG: Ossifying subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 10:4304341953Chusid JG de Gutierrez-Mahoney CG: Ossifying subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 10:430–434 1953

20.

Cliff WJ: Observations on healing tissue: a combined light and electron microscopic investigation. Phil Trans R Soc Lond (Biol Sci) 246:3053251963Cliff WJ: Observations on healing tissue: a combined light and electron microscopic investigation. Phil Trans R Soc Lond (Biol Sci) 246:305–325 1963

21.

Collins WFPucci GL: Peritoneal drainage of subdural hematomas in infants. J Pediatr 58:4824851961Collins WF Pucci GL: Peritoneal drainage of subdural hematomas in infants. J Pediatr 58:482–485 1961

22.

Cotran RSMajno G: A light and electron microscopic analysis of vascular injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:7507641964Cotran RS Majno G: A light and electron microscopic analysis of vascular injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:750–764 1964

23.

Cusick JFBailey OT: Association of ossified subdural hematomas and a meningioma. Case report. J Neurosurg 37:7317341972Cusick JF Bailey OT: Association of ossified subdural hematomas and a meningioma. Case report. J Neurosurg 37:731–734 1972

24.

Dandy WE: The Brain. New York: Hoeber Medical1969 pp 280291Dandy WE: The Brain. New York: Hoeber Medical 1969 pp 280–291

25.

Davidoff LMFeiring EH: Subdural hematoma occurring in surgically treated hydrocephalic children. With a note on a method of handling persistent accumulations. J Neurosurg 10:5575631953Davidoff LM Feiring EH: Subdural hematoma occurring in surgically treated hydrocephalic children. With a note on a method of handling persistent accumulations. J Neurosurg 10:557–563 1953

26.

Davis DOPressman BD: Computerized tomography of the brain. Radiol Clin North Am 12(2): 2973131974Davis DO Pressman BD: Computerized tomography of the brain. Radiol Clin North Am 12(2):297–313 1974

27.

Dooley DMPerlmutter I: Spontaneous intracranial hematomas in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. Surgical treatment. JAMA 187:3963981964Dooley DM Perlmutter I: Spontaneous intracranial hematomas in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. Surgical treatment. JAMA 187:396–398 1964

28.

Echlin FASordillo SVRGarvey TQ Jr: Acute, subacute, and chronic subdural hematoma. JAMA 161:134513501956Echlin FA Sordillo SVR Garvey TQ Jr: Acute subacute and chronic subdural hematoma. JAMA 161:1345–1350 1956

29.

Edson JRMcArthur JRBranda RFet al: Successful management of a subdural hematoma in a hemophiliac with an anti-factor VIII antibody. Blood 41:1131221973Edson JR McArthur JR Branda RF et al: Successful management of a subdural hematoma in a hemophiliac with an anti-factor VIII antibody. Blood 41:113–122 1973

30.

el-Banhawy ASalama MFadli ME: Peripheral aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. J Egypt Med Assoc 48:5375451965el-Banhawy A Salama M Fadli ME: Peripheral aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery. J Egypt Med Assoc 48:537–545 1965

31.

Fogelholm RHeiskanen OWaltimo O: Chronic subdural hematoma in adults. Influence of patient's age on symptoms, signs, and thickness of the hematoma. J Neurosurg 42:43461975Fogelholm R Heiskanen O Waltimo O: Chronic subdural hematoma in adults. Influence of patient's age on symptoms signs and thickness of the hematoma. J Neurosurg 42:43–46 1975

32.

Fontan AVerger PBattin JJet al: Hématome sousdural du nourrisson et déshydratation avec hyponatriémie. J Med Bordeaux 140:5895951963Fontan A Verger P Battin JJ et al: Hématome sousdural du nourrisson et déshydratation avec hyponatriémie. J Med Bordeaux 140:589–595 1963

33.

Forbes GSSheedy PF IIPiepgras DGet al: Computed tomography in the evaluation of subdural hematomas. Radiology 126:1431481978Forbes GS Sheedy PF II Piepgras DG et al: Computed tomography in the evaluation of subdural hematomas. Radiology 126:143–148 1978

34.

Forrest DMCooper DGW: Complications of ventriculoatrial shunts. A review of 455 cases. J Neurosurg 29:5065121968Forrest DM Cooper DGW: Complications of ventriculoatrial shunts. A review of 455 cases. J Neurosurg 29:506–512 1968

35.

French BNDublin AB: The value of computerized tomography in the management of 1000 consecutive head injuries. Surg Neurol 7:1711831977French BN Dublin AB: The value of computerized tomography in the management of 1000 consecutive head injuries. Surg Neurol 7:171–183 1977

36.

French L: Tumors — intracranial and cranial in Jackson IJThompson RK (eds): Pediatric Neurosurgery. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas1959 pp 290294French L: Tumors — intracranial and cranial in Jackson IJ Thompson RK (eds): Pediatric Neurosurgery. Springfield Ill: Charles C Thomas 1959 pp 290–294

37.

Gannon WECook AWBrowder EJ: Resolving subdural collections. J Neurosurg 19:8658691962Gannon WE Cook AW Browder EJ: Resolving subdural collections. J Neurosurg 19:865–869 1962

38.

Gardner WJ: Traumatic subdural hematoma with particular reference to the latent interval. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 27:8478581932Gardner WJ: Traumatic subdural hematoma with particular reference to the latent interval. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 27:847–858 1932

39.

Gilday DLWortzman GReid M: Subdural hematoma: is it or is it not acute? Radiology 110:1411451974Gilday DL Wortzman G Reid M: Subdural hematoma: is it or is it not acute? Radiology 110:141–145 1974

40.

Gjerris FSchmidt K: Chronic subdural hematoma. Surgery or mannitol treatment. J Neurosurg 40:6396421974Gjerris F Schmidt K: Chronic subdural hematoma. Surgery or mannitol treatment. J Neurosurg 40:639–642 1974

41.

Glover DLabadie EL: Physiopathogenesis of subdural hematomas. Part 2: Inhibition of growth of experimental hematomas with dexamethasone. J Neurosurg 45:3933971976Glover D Labadie EL: Physiopathogenesis of subdural hematomas. Part 2: Inhibition of growth of experimental hematomas with dexamethasone. J Neurosurg 45:393–397 1976

42.

Goodell CLMealey J Jr: Pathogenesis of chronic subdural hematoma: experimental studies. Arch Neurol 8:4294371963Goodell CL Mealey J Jr: Pathogenesis of chronic subdural hematoma: experimental studies. Arch Neurol 8:429–437 1963

43.

Grayson MJ: Chronic subdural haematomata associated with anticoagulant treatment. Proc R Soc Med 55:8048051962Grayson MJ: Chronic subdural haematomata associated with anticoagulant treatment. Proc R Soc Med 55:804–805 1962

44.

Griponissiotis B: Ossifying chronic subdural hematoma. Report of a case. J Neurosurg 12:4194201955Griponissiotis B: Ossifying chronic subdural hematoma. Report of a case. J Neurosurg 12:419–420 1955

45.

Gurdjian ESThomas LM: Operative Neurosurgeryed 3. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins1970 p 256Gurdjian ES Thomas LM: Operative Neurosurgery ed 3. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 1970 p 256

46.

Hancock DO: Cerebral collapse associated with chronic subdural haematoma in adults. A comparison of two methods of treatment. Lancet 1:6336341965Hancock DO: Cerebral collapse associated with chronic subdural haematoma in adults. A comparison of two methods of treatment. Lancet 1:633–634 1965

47.

Hemmer RPotthoff PC: Subdurales Hämatom als Begleiterscheinung des ventrikuloaurikulären Shunts. Neurochirurgia 12:1021061969Hemmer R Potthoff PC: Subdurales Hämatom als Begleiterscheinung des ventrikuloaurikulären Shunts. Neurochirurgia 12:102–106 1969

48.

Hill NCGoldstein NPMcKenzie BFet al: Cerebrospinal-fluid proteins, glycoproteins, and lipoproteins in obstructive lesions of the central nervous system. Brain 82:5815931959Hill NC Goldstein NP McKenzie BF et al: Cerebrospinal-fluid proteins glycoproteins and lipoproteins in obstructive lesions of the central nervous system. Brain 82:581–593 1959

49.

Hirakawa KNakamura N: Chronic subdural hematoma in infants and children. Psychiat Neurol Jap 4:84941964Hirakawa K Nakamura N: Chronic subdural hematoma in infants and children. Psychiat Neurol Jap 4:84–94 1964

50.

Horrax GPoppen JL: The frequency, recognition and treatment of chronic subdural hematomas. N Engl J Med 216:3813851937Horrax G Poppen JL: The frequency recognition and treatment of chronic subdural hematomas. N Engl J Med 216:381–385 1937

51.

Huber P: Die Rolle der Hirnrindenverletzung bei der Entstehung des traumatischen chronischen Subduralhaematoms. Langenbeck Arch Klin Chir 299:6937061962Huber P: Die Rolle der Hirnrindenverletzung bei der Entstehung des traumatischen chronischen Subduralhaematoms. Langenbeck Arch Klin Chir 299:693–706 1962

52.

Huber P: Zerebrale Angiographie fuer Klinik und Praxis in Huber PKrayenbühl HYasargil MGed 3. Stuttgart: Thieme1979 pp 484485Huber P: Zerebrale Angiographie fuer Klinik und Praxis in Huber P Krayenbühl H Yasargil MG ed 3. Stuttgart: Thieme 1979 pp 484–485

53.

Hubschmann OR: Twist drill craniostomy in the treatment of chronic and subacute subdural hematomas in severely ill and elderly patients. Neurosurgery 6:2332361980Hubschmann OR: Twist drill craniostomy in the treatment of chronic and subacute subdural hematomas in severely ill and elderly patients. Neurosurgery 6:233–236 1980

54.

Huguenin P: Das intrakranielle Subduralhämatom unter Antikoagulantienbehandlung. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 100:38691967Huguenin P: Das intrakranielle Subduralhämatom unter Antikoagulantienbehandlung. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 100:38–69 1967

55.

Hurwitz SRHalpern SELeopold G: Brain scans and echoencephalography in the diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 40:3473501974Hurwitz SR Halpern SE Leopold G: Brain scans and echoencephalography in the diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 40:347–350 1974

56.

Illingworth RD: Subdural haematoma after the treatment of chronic hydrocephalus by ventriculocaval shunts. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33:95991970Illingworth RD: Subdural haematoma after the treatment of chronic hydrocephalus by ventriculocaval shunts. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33:95–99 1970

57.

Isfort A: Beiderseitiges traumatisches Subduralhämatom bei einem Kleinkind mit Hämophilie. Zbl Neurochir 28:1551591967Isfort A: Beiderseitiges traumatisches Subduralhämatom bei einem Kleinkind mit Hämophilie. Zbl Neurochir 28:155–159 1967

58.

Ito HKomai TYamamoto S: Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products in chronic subdural hematoma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 15:51551975Ito H Komai T Yamamoto S: Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products in chronic subdural hematoma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 15:51–55 1975

59.

Ito HKomai TYamamoto S: Fibrinolytic enzyme in the lining walls of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 48:1972001978Ito H Komai T Yamamoto S: Fibrinolytic enzyme in the lining walls of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 48:197–200 1978

60.

Ito HYamamoto SKomai Tet al: Role of local hyperfibrinolysis in the etiology of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 45:26311976Ito H Yamamoto S Komai T et al: Role of local hyperfibrinolysis in the etiology of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 45:26–31 1976

61.

Jamieson KGYelland JDN: Surgically treated traumatic subdural hematomas. J. Neurosurg 37:1371491972Jamieson KG Yelland JDN: Surgically treated traumatic subdural hematomas. J. Neurosurg 37:137–149 1972

62.

Jores LLaurent H: Zur Histologie und Histogenese der Pachymeningitis haemorrhagica interna. Beitr Pathol 29:4865061901Jores L Laurent H: Zur Histologie und Histogenese der Pachymeningitis haemorrhagica interna. Beitr Pathol 29:486–506 1901

63.

Kim KSHemmati MWeinberg PE: Computed tomography in isodense subdural hematoma. Radiology 128:71741978Kim KS Hemmati M Weinberg PE: Computed tomography in isodense subdural hematoma. Radiology 128:71–74 1978

64.

Klein MR: L'hématome sous-dural du nourrisson. Neurochirurgia 6:1521631963Klein MR: L'hématome sous-dural du nourrisson. Neurochirurgia 6:152–163 1963

65.

Komai THo HYamashima Tet al: [Etiology of chronic subdural hematoma — role of local hyperfibrinolysis.] Neurol Med Chir 17 (Pt 2): 4995051977 (Jpn)Komai T Ho H Yamashima T et al: [Etiology of chronic subdural hematoma — role of local hyperfibrinolysis.] Neurol Med Chir 17 (Pt 2):499–505 1977 (Jpn)

66.

Kondrashov AI: [Conservative treatment of chronic subdural hematomas] Vopr Neirokhir 4:60621974 (Rus)Kondrashov AI: [Conservative treatment of chronic subdural hematomas] Vopr Neirokhir 4:60–62 1974 (Rus)

67.

Krauland W: Der Ursprung des Acuten und Chronischen Subduralhaematoms. Stuttgart: Thieme196184 ppKrauland W: Der Ursprung des Acuten und Chronischen Subduralhaematoms. Stuttgart: Thieme 1961 84 pp

68.

Krebs EPuech PBrunhes J: Collapsus des ventricules cerebraux dans les traumatismes craniens. Rev Neurol 68:8318391937Krebs E Puech P Brunhes J: Collapsus des ventricules cerebraux dans les traumatismes craniens. Rev Neurol 68:831–839 1937

69.

Kricheff IILin JPChase NE: Computer assisted tomography in intracerebral hematomas and head trauma in Salamon G (ed): Advances in Cerebral Angiography. New York/Heidelberg/Berlin: Springer-Verlag1975 pp 353357Kricheff II Lin JP Chase NE: Computer assisted tomography in intracerebral hematomas and head trauma in Salamon G (ed): Advances in Cerebral Angiography. New York/Heidelberg/Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1975 pp 353–357

70.

Labadie ELGlover D: Physiopathogenesis of subdural hematomas. Part 1: Histological and biochemical comparisons of subcutaneous hematoma in rats with subdural hematoma in man. J Neurosurg 45:3823921976Labadie EL Glover D: Physiopathogenesis of subdural hematomas. Part 1: Histological and biochemical comparisons of subcutaneous hematoma in rats with subdural hematoma in man. J Neurosurg 45:382–392 1976

71.

LaCour FTrevor RCarey M: Arachnoid cyst and associated subdural hematoma. Observations on conventional roentgenographic and computerized tomographic diagnosis. Arch Neurol 35:84891978LaCour F Trevor R Carey M: Arachnoid cyst and associated subdural hematoma. Observations on conventional roentgenographic and computerized tomographic diagnosis. Arch Neurol 35:84–89 1978

72.

LaLonde AAGardner WJ: Chronic subdural hematoma. Expansion of compressed cerebral hemispheres and relief of hypertension by spinal injection of physiologic saline solution. N Engl J Med 239:4934961948LaLonde AA Gardner WJ: Chronic subdural hematoma. Expansion of compressed cerebral hemispheres and relief of hypertension by spinal injection of physiologic saline solution. N Engl J Med 239:493–496 1948

73.

Leriche R: De l'hypotension du liquide céphalorachidien dans les traumatismes du crâne. Presse Med 51:9459481931Leriche R: De l'hypotension du liquide céphalorachidien dans les traumatismes du crâne. Presse Med 51:945–948 1931

74.

Leu HJRütter JR: Electron microscopic studies of capillaries in experimental chronic granulomas. Angiologica 5:2012091968Leu HJ Rütter JR: Electron microscopic studies of capillaries in experimental chronic granulomas. Angiologica 5:201–209 1968

75.

Link KSchleussing H: Die offenen Verletzungen der Dura mater cerebralis und spninalis sowie der Blutleiter in Lubarsch OHenke FRoessle Ret al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer1955 Vol 13/3 pp 120Link K Schleussing H: Die offenen Verletzungen der Dura mater cerebralis und spninalis sowie der Blutleiter in Lubarsch O Henke F Roessle R et al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer 1955 Vol 13/3 pp 1–20

76.

Luken MG IIIWhelan MA: Recent diagnostic experience with subdural empyema. J Neurosurg 52:7647711980Luken MG III Whelan MA: Recent diagnostic experience with subdural empyema. J Neurosurg 52:764–771 1980

77.

MacDonald Holmes J: Intracranial hypotension associated with subdural haematoma. Br Med J 1:136313661953MacDonald Holmes J: Intracranial hypotension associated with subdural haematoma. Br Med J 1:1363–1366 1953

78.

MacGee EE: Subdural-pleural shunt. Treatment for chronic subdural hematoma in infancy. J Kansas Med Soc 70:3213251969MacGee EE: Subdural-pleural shunt. Treatment for chronic subdural hematoma in infancy. J Kansas Med Soc 70:321–325 1969

79.

Mardešić DCigit S: Subduralni hematom poslije hiponatremičke dehidracije dojenčta. >Lijecn Vjesn 7:7537601965Mardešić D Cigit S: Subduralni hematom poslije hiponatremičke dehidracije dojenčta. Lijecn Vjesn 7:753–760 1965

80.

Marshall SHinman F Jr: Subdural hematoma following administration of urea for diagnosis of hypertension. JAMA 182:8138141962Marshall S Hinman F Jr: Subdural hematoma following administration of urea for diagnosis of hypertension. JAMA 182:813–814 1962

81.

Matricali B: Subdural suction drainage of haematomas. Surg Neurol 3:2452461975Matricali B: Subdural suction drainage of haematomas. Surg Neurol 3:245–246 1975

82.

Mayser P: [The role of coagulopathies in chronic subdural hematoma in childhood.] Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 110:2082091962 (Ger)Mayser P: [The role of coagulopathies in chronic subdural hematoma in childhood.] Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 110:208–209 1962 (Ger)

83.

McLaurin RLMcLaurin KS: Calcified subdural hematomas in childhood. J Neurosurg 24:6486551966McLaurin RL McLaurin KS: Calcified subdural hematomas in childhood. J Neurosurg 24:648–655 1966

84.

Melnikow-Raswedenkow N: Histologische Untersuchungen über den normalen Bau der Dura mater und über Pachymeningitis interna. Beitr Pathol 28:2172541900Melnikow-Raswedenkow N: Histologische Untersuchungen über den normalen Bau der Dura mater und über Pachymeningitis interna. Beitr Pathol 28:217–254 1900

85.

Modesti LMBinet EFCollins GH: Meningiomas causing spontaneous intracranial hematomas. J Neurosurg 45:4374411976Modesti LM Binet EF Collins GH: Meningiomas causing spontaneous intracranial hematomas. J Neurosurg 45:437–441 1976

86.

Moeller AEricson K: Computed tomography of isoattenuating subdural hematomas. Radiology 130:1491521979Moeller A Ericson K: Computed tomography of isoattenuating subdural hematomas. Radiology 130:149–152 1979

87.

Mori KHanda H: Subdural haematoma (effusion) and internal hydrocephalus. Neurochirurgia 20:1541611977Mori K Handa H: Subdural haematoma (effusion) and internal hydrocephalus. Neurochirurgia 20:154–161 1977

88.

Mori KTakeuchi JHanda H: Subdural effusion and brain tumor. Case report and survey of the literature. Surg Neurol 3:2572601975Mori K Takeuchi J Handa H: Subdural effusion and brain tumor. Case report and survey of the literature. Surg Neurol 3:257–260 1975

89.

Moyes PDThompson GBCluff JW: Subdural peritoneal shunts in the treatment of subdural effusions in infants. J Neurosurg 23:5845871965Moyes PD Thompson GB Cluff JW: Subdural peritoneal shunts in the treatment of subdural effusions in infants. J Neurosurg 23:584–587 1965

90.

Munro DMerritt HH: Surgical pathology of subdural hematoma based on a study of one hundred and five cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 35:64791936Munro D Merritt HH: Surgical pathology of subdural hematoma based on a study of one hundred and five cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 35:64–79 1936

91.

Negrón RATirado GZapater C: Simple bedside technique for evacuating chronic subdural hematomas. Technical note. J Neurosurg 42:6096111975Negrón RA Tirado G Zapater C: Simple bedside technique for evacuating chronic subdural hematomas. Technical note. J Neurosurg 42:609–611 1975

92.

New PFJAronow S: Attenuation measurements of whole blood and blood fractions in computed tomography. Radiology 121:6356401976New PFJ Aronow S: Attenuation measurements of whole blood and blood fractions in computed tomography. Radiology 121:635–640 1976

93.

New PFJScott WR: Computed Tomography of the Brain and Orbit (EMI Scanning). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins1975New PFJ Scott WR: Computed Tomography of the Brain and Orbit (EMI Scanning). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins 1975

94.

Norman O: Angiographic differentiation between acute and chronic subdural and extradural hematomas. Acta Radiol (Diagn) 46:3713781956Norman O: Angiographic differentiation between acute and chronic subdural and extradural hematomas. Acta Radiol (Diagn) 46:371–378 1956

95.

Obach RSole-Llenas JPlanas Met al: [Subdural hematoma with spontaneous remission.] Rev Clin Esp 112:4814841969 (Spa)Obach R Sole-Llenas J Planas M et al: [Subdural hematoma with spontaneous remission.] Rev Clin Esp 112:481–484 1969 (Spa)

96.

O'Connell JEA: The cerebrospinal fluid pressure as an aetiological factor in the development of lesions affecting the central nervous system. Brain 76:2792981953O'Connell JEA: The cerebrospinal fluid pressure as an aetiological factor in the development of lesions affecting the central nervous system. Brain 76:279–298 1953

97.

Ommaya AKYarnell P: Subdural haematoma after whiplash injury. Lancet 2:2372391969Ommaya AK Yarnell P: Subdural haematoma after whiplash injury. Lancet 2:237–239 1969

98.

Perret GEGraf CJ: Subgaleal shunt for temporary ventricle decompression and subdural drainage. J Neurosurg 47:5905951977Perret GE Graf CJ: Subgaleal shunt for temporary ventricle decompression and subdural drainage. J Neurosurg 47:590–595 1977

99.

Pfeifer RA: Die Angioarchitektonik der Grosshirnrinde. Berlin: Springer1928Pfeifer RA: Die Angioarchitektonik der Grosshirnrinde. Berlin: Springer 1928

100.

Prevedi G: Trattamento röntgenterapico di ematomi subdurali subacuti e cronici controllati con carotidografia. Radiol Med (Torino) 52:4364471966Prevedi G: Trattamento röntgenterapico di ematomi subdurali subacuti e cronici controllati con carotidografia. Radiol Med (Torino) 52:436–447 1966

101.

Puech PLhermitte JBuvat JKet al: Un cas d'hypotension intracranienne spontanée avec constatations anatomiques. Rev Neurol 74:3163171942Puech P Lhermitte J Buvat JK et al: Un cas d'hypotension intracranienne spontanée avec constatations anatomiques. Rev Neurol 74:316–317 1942

102.

Putnam TJCushing H: Chronic subdural hematoma: its pathology, its relation to pachymeningitis hemorrhagica and its surgical treatment. Arch Surg 11:3293931925Putnam TJ Cushing H: Chronic subdural hematoma: its pathology its relation to pachymeningitis hemorrhagica and its surgical treatment. Arch Surg 11:329–393 1925

103.

Putnam TJPutnam IK: The experimental study of pachymeningitis hemorrhagica. J Nerv Ment Dis 65:2602721927Putnam TJ Putnam IK: The experimental study of pachymeningitis hemorrhagica. J Nerv Ment Dis 65:260–272 1927

104.

Rabe EFFlynn REDodge PR: A study of subdural effusions in an infant, with particular reference to the mechanisms of their persistence. Neurology 12:79921962Rabe EF Flynn RE Dodge PR: A study of subdural effusions in an infant with particular reference to the mechanisms of their persistence. Neurology 12:79–92 1962

105.

Radcliffe WBGuinto FC JrAdcock DFet al: Subdural hematoma shape. A new look at an old concept. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 115:72771972Radcliffe WB Guinto FC Jr Adcock DF et al: Subdural hematoma shape. A new look at an old concept. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 115:72–77 1972

106.

Rand BOWard AA JrWhite LE Jr: The use of the twist drill to evaluate head trauma. J Neurosurg 25:4104151966Rand BO Ward AA Jr White LE Jr: The use of the twist drill to evaluate head trauma. J Neurosurg 25:410–415 1966

107.

Ransohoff Js: Chronic subdural hematoma treated by subdural-pleural shunt. Pediatrics 20:5615641957Ransohoff J: Chronic subdural hematoma treated by subdural-pleural shunt. Pediatrics 20:561–564 1957

108.

Rhodin JAG: Ultrastructure of mammalian venous capillaries, venules, and small collecting veins. J Ultrastruct Res 25:4525001968Rhodin JAG: Ultrastructure of mammalian venous capillaries venules and small collecting veins. J Ultrastruct Res 25:452–500 1968

109.

Robinson RG: The treatment of subacute and chronic subdural hematomas. Br Med J 1:21221955Robinson RG: The treatment of subacute and chronic subdural hematomas. Br Med J 1:21–22 1955

110.

Rosenbluth PRArias BQuartetti EVet al: Current management of subdural hematoma. Analysis of 100 consecutive cases. JAMA 179:7597621962Rosenbluth PR Arias B Quartetti EV et al: Current management of subdural hematoma. Analysis of 100 consecutive cases. JAMA 179:759–762 1962

111.

Russell DSCairns H: Subdural false membrane or haematoma (pachymeningitis interna haemorrhagica) in carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of the dura mater. Brain 57:32481934Russell DS Cairns H: Subdural false membrane or haematoma (pachymeningitis interna haemorrhagica) in carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis of the dura mater. Brain 57:32–48 1934

112.

Sato SSuzuki J: Ultrastructural observations of the capsule of chronic subdural hematoma in various clinical stages. J Neurosurg 43:5695781975Sato S Suzuki J: Ultrastructural observations of the capsule of chronic subdural hematoma in various clinical stages. J Neurosurg 43:569–578 1975

113.

Scherzer E: Chronische Subduralhämatome bei vaskulären Missbildungen des Schädelinnenraumes. Wien Z Nervenheilk 25:57671967Scherzer E: Chronische Subduralhämatome bei vaskulären Missbildungen des Schädelinnenraumes. Wien Z Nervenheilk 25:57–67 1967

114.

Schoefl GI: Electron microscopic observations on the regeneration of blood vessels after injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:7898021964Schoefl GI: Electron microscopic observations on the regeneration of blood vessels after injury. Ann NY Acad Sci 116:789–802 1964

115.

Scotti GTerbrugge KMelancon Det al: Evaluation of the age of subdural hematomas by computerized tomography. J Neurosurg 47:3113151977Scotti G Terbrugge K Melancon D et al: Evaluation of the age of subdural hematomas by computerized tomography. J Neurosurg 47:311–315 1977

116.

Sherman IJFromm SM: Subdural hematoma. Conn Med 25:5695731961Sherman IJ Fromm SM: Subdural hematoma. Conn Med 25:569–573 1961

117.

Shulman KRansohoff J: Subdural hematoma in children. The fate of children with retained membranes. J Neurosurg 18:1751811961Shulman K Ransohoff J: Subdural hematoma in children. The fate of children with retained membranes. J Neurosurg 18:175–181 1961

118.

Smith HVCrothers B: Subdural fluid as a consequence of pneumoencephalography. Pediatrics 5:3753891950Smith HV Crothers B: Subdural fluid as a consequence of pneumoencephalography. Pediatrics 5:375–389 1950

119.

Smith RASmith WA: Arachnoid cysts of the middle cerebral fossa. Surg Neurol 5:2462521976Smith RA Smith WA: Arachnoid cysts of the middle cerebral fossa. Surg Neurol 5:246–252 1976

120.

Smyth HSLivingston KE: Ventricular infusion in the operative management of subdural hematoma in Morley TP (ed): Current Controversies in Neurosurgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders1976 pp 566571Smyth HS Livingston KE: Ventricular infusion in the operative management of subdural hematoma in Morley TP (ed): Current Controversies in Neurosurgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders 1976 pp 566–571

121.

Sohal RSBurch GEChu KCet al: Ultrastructural changes in cardiac capillaries of Coxsackie virus B4-infected mice. Lab Invest 19:3994051968Sohal RS Burch GE Chu KC et al: Ultrastructural changes in cardiac capillaries of Coxsackie virus B4-infected mice. Lab Invest 19:399–405 1968

122.

Straeussler E: Die einfache Entzuendung der Dura mater. Pachymeningitis simplex. Pachymeningitis haemorrhagica in Lubarsch OHenke FRoessle Ret al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer1958 Vol 13/2B pp 17071713Straeussler E: Die einfache Entzuendung der Dura mater. Pachymeningitis simplex. Pachymeningitis haemorrhagica in Lubarsch O Henke F Roessle R et al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer 1958 Vol 13/2B pp 1707–1713

123.

Suzuki JKomatsu S: Estrogen in patients with chronic subdural hematoma. Surg Neurol 8:2432471977Suzuki J Komatsu S: Estrogen in patients with chronic subdural hematoma. Surg Neurol 8:243–247 1977

124.

Suzuki JTakaku A: Nonsurgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 33:5485531970Suzuki J Takaku A: Nonsurgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 33:548–553 1970

125.

Svien HJGelety JE: On the surgical management of encapsulated subdural hematoma. A comparison of the results of membranectomy and simple evacuation. J Neurosurg 21:1721771964Svien HJ Gelety JE: On the surgical management of encapsulated subdural hematoma. A comparison of the results of membranectomy and simple evacuation. J Neurosurg 21:172–177 1964

126.

Taarnhøj P: Chronic subdural hematoma. Historical review and analysis of 60 cases. Cleve Clin Q 22:1501561955Taarnhøj P: Chronic subdural hematoma. Historical review and analysis of 60 cases. Cleve Clin Q 22:150–156 1955

127.

Tabaddor KShulman K: Definitive treatment of chronic subdural hematoma by twist-drill craniostomy and closed-system drainage. J Neurosurg 46:2202261977Tabaddor K Shulman K: Definitive treatment of chronic subdural hematoma by twist-drill craniostomy and closed-system drainage. J Neurosurg 46:220–226 1977

128.

Talmant JCCollet MSartre Ret al: Les hémorragies du système nerveux central au cours des leucoses aiguës (A propos d'une localisation rare révélatrice de l'affection.) Sem Hop Paris 43:302230261967Talmant JC Collet M Sartre R et al: Les hémorragies du système nerveux central au cours des leucoses aiguës (A propos d'une localisation rare révélatrice de l'affection.) Sem Hop Paris 43:3022–3026 1967

129.

Taptas JN: Intracranial meningioma in a four-month-old infant simulating subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 18:1201211961Taptas JN: Intracranial meningioma in a four-month-old infant simulating subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 18:120–121 1961

130.

Temirov ESShlepova TA: [On the problem of spontaneous recovery of subdural hematomas.] Vopr Neirokhir 25:42451961 (Rus)Temirov ES Shlepova TA: [On the problem of spontaneous recovery of subdural hematomas.] Vopr Neirokhir 25:42–45 1961 (Rus)

131.

Till K: Subdural hematoma and effusion in infancy. Br Med J 3:4004021968Till K: Subdural hematoma and effusion in infancy. Br Med J 3:400–402 1968

132.

Trotter W: Chronic subdural hemorrhage of traumatic origin, and its relation to pachymeningitis hemorrhagica interna. Br J Surg 2:2712911914Trotter W: Chronic subdural hemorrhage of traumatic origin and its relation to pachymeningitis hemorrhagica interna. Br J Surg 2:271–291 1914

133.

Tsai FYHuprich JESegall HDet al: The contrast-enhanced CT scan in the diagnosis of isodense subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 50:64691979Tsai FY Huprich JE Segall HD et al: The contrast-enhanced CT scan in the diagnosis of isodense subdural hematoma. J Neurosurg 50:64–69 1979

134.

Tyson GStrachan WENewman Pet al: The role of craniectomy in the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas. J Neurosurg 52:7767811980Tyson G Strachan WE Newman P et al: The role of craniectomy in the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas. J Neurosurg 52:776–781 1980

135.

Vinken PJBruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol 19: Craniocerebral Injuries. Amsterdam: North Holland1975860 ppVinken PJ Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol 19: Craniocerebral Injuries. Amsterdam: North Holland 1975 860 pp

136.

Virchow R: Das Haematom der Dura mater. Verh Phys Med Ges Wuerzburg 7:1341421857Virchow R: Das Haematom der Dura mater. Verh Phys Med Ges Wuerzburg 7:134–142 1857

137.

Voigt GESaldeen T: Uber den Abriss zahlreicher oder sämtlicher Vv. cerebri superiores mit geringem Subduralhämatom und Hirnstammsläsion. Dtsch Z Ges Gerichtl Med 64:9201968Voigt GE Saldeen T: Uber den Abriss zahlreicher oder sämtlicher Vv. cerebri superiores mit geringem Subduralhämatom und Hirnstammsläsion. Dtsch Z Ges Gerichtl Med 64:9–20 1968

138.

Volland W: Veraenderungen des Zentralnervensystems bei infektioesen Erkrankungen in Lubarsch OHenke FRoessle Ret al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer1958 Vol 13/2A pp 12301302Volland W: Veraenderungen des Zentralnervensystems bei infektioesen Erkrankungen in Lubarsch O Henke F Roessle R et al (eds): Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Berlin: Springer 1958 Vol 13/2A pp 1230–1302

139.

Watts Cs: The management of intracranial calcified subdural hematomas. Surg Neurol 6:2472501976Watts C: The management of intracranial calcified subdural hematomas. Surg Neurol 6:247–250 1976

140.

Watanabe SShimada HIshii S: Production of clinical form of chronic subdural hematoma in experimental animals. J Neurosurg 37:5525611972Watanabe S Shimada H Ishii S: Production of clinical form of chronic subdural hematoma in experimental animals. J Neurosurg 37:552–561 1972

141.

Weir B: The osmolality of subdural hematoma fluid. J Neurosurg 34:5285331971Weir B: The osmolality of subdural hematoma fluid. J Neurosurg 34:528–533 1971

142.

Weir B: Oncotic pressure of subdural fluids. J Neurosurg 53:5125151980Weir B: Oncotic pressure of subdural fluids. J Neurosurg 53:512–515 1980

143.

Wilson EFeres S: Hematoma subdural crónico bilateral asociado a hipotensión del liquido cefalorraquídeo. Acta Neurol Lat Am 21:991071975Wilson E Feres S: Hematoma subdural crónico bilateral asociado a hipotensión del liquido cefalorraquídeo. Acta Neurol Lat Am 21:99–107 1975

144.

Wise BLMathis JL: The effects of isosorbide on serum and cerebrospinal fluid osmolality and on the spinal fluid pressure in man. J Neurosurg 28:1241281968Wise BL Mathis JL: The effects of isosorbide on serum and cerebrospinal fluid osmolality and on the spinal fluid pressure in man. J Neurosurg 28:124–128 1968

145.

Yamamoto SIto HMizukoshi Het al: [Hemorrhage from the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematoma.] Neurol Surg (Tokyo) 2:2392421974 (Jpn)Yamamoto S Ito H Mizukoshi H et al: [Hemorrhage from the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematoma.] Neurol Surg (Tokyo) 2:239–242 1974 (Jpn)

146.

Yamamoto TSato S: Electron microscope studies on the vessel wall and the leucocyte emigration. Arch Histol Jpn 27:2973101966Yamamoto T Sato S: Electron microscope studies on the vessel wall and the leucocyte emigration. Arch Histol Jpn 27:297–310 1966

147.

Zollinger RGross RE: Traumatic subdural hematoma, an explanation of the late onset of pressure symptoms. JAMA 103:2452491934Zollinger R Gross RE: Traumatic subdural hematoma an explanation of the late onset of pressure symptoms. JAMA 103:245–249 1934

TrendMD

Cited By

Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 896 896 320
Full Text Views 3001 3001 25
PDF Downloads 174 174 13
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0

PubMed

Google Scholar