Impaired microvascular filling after focal cerebral ischemia in monkeys

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✓ Impairment of microvascular filling was demonstrated in relation to focal cerebral ischemia in the monkey. Temporary or sustained middle cerebral artery (MCA) clipping was achieved with a microsurgical technique. Animals were sacrificed by perfusion with a carbon black suspension. Brains were fixed in formalin, and the extent of microvascular carbon filling was estimated grossly and microscopically. In most animals, MCA occlusion of 2 hours to 7 days produced diminished filling in small vessels in the MCA territory of supply. The impairment of filling was most pronounced in the deep subcortical structures but also affected the cortex in some animals. Temporary and sustained occlusion of equal duration produced roughly equivalent areas of abnormal filling. The impairment of vascular filling tended to be more extensive with increasing duration of occlusion. Hypotension during MCA occlusion caused almost total non-filling of the microvasculature in the entire MCA territory. Impaired filling of vascular channels may play a role in the pathogenesis of some clinical cerebrovascular diseases.

Article Information

Present address for Dr. Olsson: Patologiska Institutionen, Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.Address reprint requests to: Robert M. Crowell, M.D., Neurosurgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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Figures

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    Left: Normal monkey brain perfused with carbon suspension. Note the even, symmetrical distribution of black coloration in the gray matter. The white matter, which contains fewer capillaries, has a lighter appearance. Right: Thin slice from the same brain cleared in glycerin and mounted for light microscopy. Note the filling of all vessels and the difference in capillary density between cortex (upper right) and the white matter (lower left). × 21.

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    Upper: Anteroposterior view of monkey brain after permanent occlusion of the left MCA for 24 hrs. Note the large, white nonperfused area in the basal ganglia on the left side and the shift of the midline toward the right side. Grade 2 lesion. Lower Left: Brain after permanent occlusion of the MCA for 4 hrs. The basal ganglia show signs of impaired vascular filling, but the internal capsule shows an almost normal vascular filling. Lower Right: Brain after temporary occlusion of the MCA for 24 hrs. In this case the area of poorly filled vasculature extends to the insular cortex. Note the presence of a few larger penetrating vessels that are filled with carbon suspension.

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    Upper: Monkey brain after occlusion of the MCA for 4 hrs. Section from the caudate nucleus shows diminished filling with periventricular sparing above. Lower: Brain section after temporary occlusion of the MCA for 4 hrs. Specimen from the border zone shows multiple small foci of improper vascular filling. × 25.

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    Upper Left: Specimen obtained from a border zone showing several white “blebs” in the lumen of a vessel of larger diameter that is well filled with carbon. Upper Right: Capillary from a border zone containing several white “blebs” that occupy almost the entire lumen. Lower: Histological specimen from the center of an area showing poor vascular filling after 4 hrs of temporary clipping. Note the absence of carbon from all vessels of small diameter but the presence of carbon in a few vessels of larger diameter. Luxol fast blue-PAS, × 23.

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