Not a trifecta: complementary use of carotid artery revascularization techniques in the era of hybrid neurosurgery

Bennett R. LevyGeorge Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC;

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Muhammad WaqasDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;

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Andre MonteiroDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;

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Justin M. CappuzzoDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;

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Ammad A. BaigDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;

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Wasiq I. KhawarDepartment of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;

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Jason M. DaviesDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;
Department of Bioinformatics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Canon Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, New York;
Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, New York;

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Kenneth V. SnyderDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;
Canon Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, New York;
Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, New York;

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Adnan H. SiddiquiDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;
Canon Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, New York;
Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, New York;
Department of Radiology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York; and

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Howard A. RiinaDepartment of Neurological Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York

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Elad I. LevyDepartment of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York;
Department of Neurosurgery, Gates Vascular Institute at Kaleida Health, Buffalo, New York;
Canon Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, New York;
Jacobs Institute, Buffalo, New York;
Department of Radiology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York; and

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OBJECTIVE

Carotid stenosis is currently treated by carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting (CAS), or transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR). This study sought to add to the literature by providing real-world data comparing the safety and effectiveness associated with the performance of these carotid revascularization techniques by dual-trained neurosurgeons.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of carotid stenosis databases at two US centers. Patients treated by CEA, transfemoral CAS, or TCAR for atherosclerotic carotid artery disease were included. Clinical outcomes were compared at 30 days after the procedure.

RESULTS

Seven hundred eighty patients were included (583 with CAS, 165 with CEA, and 32 with TCAR). Overall, 486 patients (62.3%) were men, and 393 (50.4%) had left-sided carotid stenosis. Most patients (n = 617, 79.1%) had symptomatic disease. Among the three treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to 30-day ischemic events (CAS 3.8%, CEA 1.8%, TCAR 6.3%; p = 0.267) or 30-day mortality rates (CAS 3.6%, CEA 2.4%, TCAR 3.1%; p = 0.857). Male sex had significantly lower odds of 30-day transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke in both univariable (p = 0.024) and multivariable (p = 0.023) regression models. Increasing age had significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality on univariable (p = 0.006) and multivariable (p = 0.003) regression. Patients with the occurrence of 30-day TIA or stroke also had significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality on univariable (p < 0.001) and multivariable (p < 0.001) regression.

CONCLUSIONS

This real-world experience reflects the current practice of hybrid neurosurgery at two high-volume tertiary care centers and suggests that all three treatment modalities have comparable safety and effectiveness if patients are properly selected.

ABBREVIATIONS

CAS = carotid artery stenting; CCA = common carotid artery; CEA = carotid endarterectomy; DSA = digital subtraction angiography; TCAR = transcarotid artery revascularization; TIA = transient ischemic attack.
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Figure from Ramos et al. (pp 95–103).

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