Letter to the Editor. Challenges and barriers for international research fellows

Alvan UkachukwuDuke University, Durham, NC

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Adetunji A. OremakindeUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Sechelt Hospital, Sechelt, BC, Canada

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Chiazor U. OnyiaLagoon Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria

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Illustration from Di Somma et al. (pp 1187–1190). Published with permission from Glia Media | Artist: Martha Headworth, MS.

  • 1

    Yang W, Rincon-Torroella J, Feghali J, et al. Impact of international research fellows in neurosurgery: results from a single academic center. J Neurosurg. 2022;136(1):295305.

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    Fallah PN, Bernstein M. Barriers to participation in global surgery academic collaborations, and possible solutions: a qualitative study. J Neurosurg. 2019;130(4):11571165.

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    Sader E, Yee P, Hodaie M. Barriers to neurosurgical training in sub-saharan africa: the need for a phased approach to global surgery efforts to improve neurosurgical care. World Neurosurg. 2017;98(397):402.

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    Burton A. Training non-physicians as neurosurgeons in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(9):684685.

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    National Institutes of Health. Research Fellow. Updated March 7, 2022. Accessed March 17, 2022.https://oir.nih.gov/sourcebook/personnel/ipds-appointment-mechanisms/research-fellow

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    National Institutes of Health. Clinical Fellow. Updated January 3, 2022. Accessed March 17, 2022.https://oir.nih.gov/sourcebook/personnel/ipds-appointment-mechanisms/clinical-fellow

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  • 3

    Phillips T, Saunders RK, Cossman J, Heitman E. Assessing trustworthiness in research: a pilot study on CV verification. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2019;14(4):353364.

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    Frumovitz M, Kriseman ML, Sun CC, et al. Unverifiable accomplishments and publications on applications for gynecologic oncology fellowships. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(3):504508.

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  • 5

    Association of American Medical Colleges. Active Physicians Who Are International Medical Graduates (IMGs) by Specialty, 2019. Physician Specialty Data Report. Accessed March 17, 2022. https://www.aamc.org/data-reports/workforce/interactive-data/active-physicians-who-are-international-medical-graduates-imgs-specialty-2019

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    Vidyasagar D. Integrating international medical graduates into the physician-scientist pool: solution to the problem of decreasing physician-scientists in the United States. J Investig Med. 2007;55(8):406409.

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    Norcini JJ, van Zanten M, Boulet JR. The contribution of international medical graduates to diversity in the U.S. physician workforce: graduate medical education. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008;19(2):493499.

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    Zaidi Z, Dewan M, Norcini J. International medical graduates: promoting equity and belonging. Acad Med. 2020;95(12S Addressing Harmful Bias and Eliminating Discrimination in Health Professions Learning Environments):S82S87.

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  • 9

    The World Bank. Low & middle income. Accessed March 17, 2022. https://data.worldbank.org/country/XO

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