Long-term surgical outcomes of intracranial epidermoid tumors: impact of extent of resection on recurrence and functional outcomes in 63 patients

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  • 1 Departments of Neurologic Surgery and
  • | 2 Otolaryngology (ENT)/Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and
  • | 3 Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
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OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to reevaluate the role of microsurgery for epidermoid tumors by examining the associations between extent of resection (EOR), tumor control, and clinical outcomes.

METHODS

This was a retrospective study of patients with microsurgically treated intracranial epidermoid tumors. The recurrence-free and intervention-free rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. EOR was graded as gross-total resection (GTR) (total resection without residual on MRI), near-total resection (NTR) (a cyst lining was left in place), subtotal resection (STR) (> 90% resection), and partial resection (PR) (any other suboptimal resection) and used to stratify outcomes.

RESULTS

Sixty-three patients with mean clinical and radiological follow-up periods of 87.3 and 81.8 months, respectively, were included. Sixteen patients underwent second resections, and 5 underwent third resections. The rates of GTR/NTR, STR, and PR were 43%, 35%, and 22%, respectively, for the initial resections; 44%, 13%, and 44% for the second resections; and 40%, 0%, and 60% for the third resections (p < 0.001). The 5- and 10-year cumulative recurrence-free rates after initial resection were 64% and 32%, respectively. When stratified according to EOR, the 10-year recurrence-free rate after GTR/NTR was marginally better than that after STR (61% vs 35%, p = 0.130) and significantly better than that after PR (61% vs 0%, p < 0.001). The recurrence-free rates after initial microsurgery were marginally better than those after second surgery (p = 0.102) and third surgery (p = 0.065). The 5- and 10-year cumulative intervention-free rates after initial resection were 91% and 58%, respectively. When stratified according to EOR, the 10-year intervention-free rate after GTR/NTR was significantly better than that after STR (100% vs 51%, p = 0.022) and PR (100% vs 27%, p < 0.001). The 5-year intervention-free rate after initial surgery was marginally better than that after second surgery (52%, p = 0.088) and significantly better than that after third surgery (0%, p = 0.004). After initial, second, and third resections, permanent neurological complications were observed in 6 (10%), 1 (6%), and 1 (20%) patients, respectively. At the last follow-up visit, 82%, 23%, and 7% of patients were free from radiological recurrence after GTR/NTR, STR, and PR as the initial surgical procedure, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

GTR/NTR seems to contribute to better disease control without significantly impairing functional status. Initial resection offers the best chance to achieve better EOR, leading to better disease control.

ABBREVIATIONS

EOR = extent of resection; GTR = gross-total resection; NTR = near-total resection; PR = partial resection; STR = subtotal resection.

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