The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, associated risk factors, and prognostic value of glioma-related epilepsy in patients with diffuse high-grade gliomas (DHGGs) that were diagnosed after the 2016 updated WHO classification was released.
Data from 449 patients with DHGGs were retrospectively collected. Definitive diagnosis was reaffirmed according to the 2016 WHO classification. Seizure outcome was assessed using the Engel classification at 12 months after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with preoperative and postoperative glioma-related epilepsy. Lastly, the prognostic value of glioma-related epilepsy was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis.
The incidence of glioma-related epilepsy decreased gradually as the malignancy of the tumor increased. Age < 45 years (OR 2.601, p < 0.001), normal neurological function (OR 3.024, p < 0.001), and lower WHO grade (OR 2.028, p = 0.010) were independently associated with preoperative glioma-related epilepsy, while preoperative glioma-related epilepsy (OR 7.554, p < 0.001), temporal lobe involvement (OR 1.954, p = 0.033), non–gross-total resection (OR 2.286, p = 0.012), and lower WHO grade (OR 2.130, p = 0.021) were identified as independent predictors of poor seizure outcome. Furthermore, postoperative glioma-related epilepsy, rather than preoperative glioma-related epilepsy, was demonstrated as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OR 0.610, p = 0.010).
The updated WHO classification seems conducive to reveal the distribution of glioma-related epilepsy in DHGG patients. For DHGG patients with high-risk predictors of poor seizure control, timely antiepileptic interventions could be beneficial. Moreover, glioma-related epilepsy (especially postoperative glioma-related epilepsy) is associated with favorable overall survival.
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