Borderline basal ganglia hemorrhage volume: patient selection for good clinical outcome after stereotactic catheter drainage

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OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine predisposing factors for good clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage with borderline volumes (defined as a hematoma volume between 20 and 50 cm3) who had undergone treatment by stereotactic catheter drainage.

METHODS

From the 298 patients whose information had been prospectively collected in the institutional database between January 2010 and December 2013, 93 patients were included in this retrospective study and divided into 2 groups: best medical treatment alone (Group A, n = 44) and best medical treatment plus catheterization (Group B, n = 49). All patients met the following criteria: 1) a diagnosis of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, and 2) a borderline hematoma volume (20 to 50 cm3). Postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and recovery of motor weakness were compared between the 2 groups, and predisposing factors for good clinical outcome were evaluated.

RESULTS

Patients in Group B showed earlier recovery of motor weakness and improved mRS scores than patients in Group A. The final mRS score at 12 months was better in Group B than in Group A (p = 0.006). Predisposing factors for a good clinical outcome were a hematoma volume < 30 cm3 (OR 6.158, 95% CI 1.221–31.053, p = 0.028), an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≥ 13 (OR 6.331, 95% CI 1.129–35.507, p = 0.036), the absence of internal capsule involvement (OR 4.680, 95% CI 1.152–19.010, p = 0.031), and catheterization (OR 13.376, 95% CI 2.423–73.842, p = 0.003) based on logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Good clinical outcome can be expected after stereotactic catheter drainage in patients with a hematoma volume between 20 and 30 cm3, an initial GCS score ≥ 13, and the absence of internal capsule involvement. Among these patients, stereotactic catheter drainage may have a beneficial effect on early recovery of motor weakness and functional outcome, indicating that lateral-type basal ganglia hematoma compression not involving the internal capsule may be better treated using stereotactic catheter drainage than treated medically.

ABBREVIATIONSBP = blood pressure; EVD = external ventricular drainage; FNSC = frameless navigation-guided stereotactic catheter drainage; FUNC = functional outcome risk stratification scale; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; IVH = intraventricular hematoma; MAP = mean arterial pressure; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; NICU = neurosurgical intensive care unit; SBP = systolic blood pressure; STICH = Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to determine predisposing factors for good clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage with borderline volumes (defined as a hematoma volume between 20 and 50 cm3) who had undergone treatment by stereotactic catheter drainage.

METHODS

From the 298 patients whose information had been prospectively collected in the institutional database between January 2010 and December 2013, 93 patients were included in this retrospective study and divided into 2 groups: best medical treatment alone (Group A, n = 44) and best medical treatment plus catheterization (Group B, n = 49). All patients met the following criteria: 1) a diagnosis of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, and 2) a borderline hematoma volume (20 to 50 cm3). Postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and recovery of motor weakness were compared between the 2 groups, and predisposing factors for good clinical outcome were evaluated.

RESULTS

Patients in Group B showed earlier recovery of motor weakness and improved mRS scores than patients in Group A. The final mRS score at 12 months was better in Group B than in Group A (p = 0.006). Predisposing factors for a good clinical outcome were a hematoma volume < 30 cm3 (OR 6.158, 95% CI 1.221–31.053, p = 0.028), an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≥ 13 (OR 6.331, 95% CI 1.129–35.507, p = 0.036), the absence of internal capsule involvement (OR 4.680, 95% CI 1.152–19.010, p = 0.031), and catheterization (OR 13.376, 95% CI 2.423–73.842, p = 0.003) based on logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

Good clinical outcome can be expected after stereotactic catheter drainage in patients with a hematoma volume between 20 and 30 cm3, an initial GCS score ≥ 13, and the absence of internal capsule involvement. Among these patients, stereotactic catheter drainage may have a beneficial effect on early recovery of motor weakness and functional outcome, indicating that lateral-type basal ganglia hematoma compression not involving the internal capsule may be better treated using stereotactic catheter drainage than treated medically.

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. It accounts for 10% to 15% of all strokes.5,8 The most common location of ICH is the basal ganglia. There is no doubt that a large, life-threatening ICH should be evacuated, and an ICH with a volume < 10 cm3 should be treated medically. However, many studies have compared surgical and medical treatment for ICH with volumes that fall between these absolutes. The International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STICH) concluded that there was no overall benefit to early surgery as compared with initial conservative treatment.11 Furthermore, the STICH II trial found that early surgery did not significantly reduce the rates of death or disability at 6-month follow-up.12 Among patients with a borderline ICH volume (defined as a volume between 20 and 50 cm3), there is likely to be a subset of patients who would achieve benefits from early surgery. For these patients, surgical treatment using minimally invasive procedures, such as stereotactic catheter drainage, could potentially be effective.1,15,17 Therefore, it would be useful to determine which patients would be good candidates for stereotactic catheter drainage in terms of beneficial clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify patients with a borderline spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage volume who had a good clinical outcome after treatment with stereotactic catheter drainage and evaluate predisposing factors.

Methods

Patient Selection

All research protocols were approved by the institutional review board of Yonsei University College of Medicine, and informed consent was waived. Between January 2010 and December 2013 the medical records and radio-graphic data from 298 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH were reviewed retrospectively. From the 298 patients, 93 patients (male/female ratio 57:36; mean age ± standard deviation 55.2 ± 11.8 years, range 31–79 years) were recruited for this study. All patients were diagnosed with ICH in the basal ganglia and displayed a borderline hematoma volume (20–50 cm3) on initial CT scans. The ICH volume (cm3) was estimated using an approximate ellipse with the formula A × B × C/2, where A was the largest diameter of the hematoma on axial CT slices in centimeters, B was the diameter of the hematoma perpendicular to A on the same slice, and C was the number of CT slices in which the hematoma was visible multiplied by the slice thickness in centimeters.10 A borderline hematoma volume was defined as a volume ranging from 20 to 50 cm3 when measured on CT scans as described above. The remaining 205 patients were excluded from the study for the following reasons: 1) combined vasculopathy, such as arteriovenous malformation, lenticulostriate artery aneurysm, or moyamoya disease (n = 4); 2) thalamic ICH (n = 43); 3) basal ganglia hematoma with ventricular extension (without intraventricular hematoma [IVH], n = 31); 4) hematoma volume < 20 cm3 (n = 32) or > 50 cm3 (n = 23); 5) cerebellar, pons, and lobar ICH (n = 17, 14, and 24, respectively); 6) rebleeding or ICH expansion that required craniotomy or craniectomy (n = 9); and 7) patients lost to follow-up (n = 8). Included patients were divided into 2 groups according to treatment modality: a best medical treatment group (Group A, n = 44) and a best medical treatment plus catheterization group (Group B, n = 49). The control group (Group A) was not matched with Group B because the number of medically treated ICH patients was too small to devise well-matched cohorts.

A functional outcome risk stratification scale (FUNC) score is a validated clinical assessment used to identify ICH patients likely to attain long-term functional independence.13 Hematoma location in the basal ganglia is classified based on arterial territories.4,9 The anterior type mainly involves the caudate head and possibly extends to the anterior limb of the internal capsule and rostral part of the putamen. The posterolateral type mainly involves the putamen, the globus pallidus, and the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The lateral type is located below the insular cortex and outside the putamen. Internal capsule involvement was defined as destruction of the internal capsule posterior limb by hematoma. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and muscle strength grading scale (0 = no contraction, 1 = flicker or trace contraction, 2 = active movement with gravity eliminated, 3 = active movement against gravity, 4 = active movement against resistance, and 5 = normal strength). Each parameter was evaluated at hospital admission and again at 1, 3, and 12 months after the procedure. Upper- and lower-extremity motor power was assessed separately. Postictus outcome at the 12-month follow-up was the primary end point. Initial scores from the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), mRS, and muscle strength grading scale were evaluated by physicians in our emergency department. Clinical outcomes during the follow-up period were assessed by 2 independent investigators not directly involved in patient care. An mRS score of 0 to 2 was defined as favorable, while an mRS score of 3 to 6 was defined as unfavorable. We also assessed the patients' hospitalization period and duration of intensive care unit stay. If a patient was transferred out of the rehabilitation department, the hospitalization period was defined as the admission to transfer date.

Best Medical Management

The best medical treatment method was applied to both groups. All patients were admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU) during the acute stage. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored routinely every 15 minutes. Continuous arterial line monitoring was performed in patients who underwent surgery or with a systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 180 mm Hg with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 150 mm Hg. Target blood pressure was 120 mm Hg ≤ SBP ≤ 140 mm Hg. BP was controlled with continuous intravenous infusion of an antihypertensive agent if the SBP was higher than 180 mm Hg at the acute stage, and then treatment was changed to oral medication. If patients had underlying coagulopathy or were taking oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents, this was corrected as soon as possible. However, a few patients (n = 7) were taking an antiplatelet agent (aspirin). Elastic stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices were applied to prevent venous thromboembolism. Prophylactic antiepileptic drugs were not used. When a CT scan indicated a mass effect and swelling or when clinical symptoms revealed increased intracranial pressure, a hypertonic agent (man-nitol) was administered. Glucose levels and body temperature were maintained within normal ranges as much as possible. Steroids were not used.

Surgical Management: Stereotactic Catheter Drainage

Frameless navigation-guided stereotactic catheter drainage (FNSC) was performed within 6 to 24 hours postictus. Patients who were selected for FNSC underwent navigation brain CT just before entering the operating room. Navigation brain CT data were imported using a navigation system (Stryker Corp.), and a target point was established. The patient's head was fixed with a 3-pin head fixator. The ipsilateral Kocher's point (located 2.5–3 cm from the midline and 1 cm anterior to the coronal suture) was the entry spot in all cases. A 10.5-Fr external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter was used. Postoperative CT scanning was performed immediately after FNSC to confirm catheter location and additional hematoma expansion, and afterwards each patient was transferred to the NICU. All medical treatment was the same for patients in Group A and Group B. A fibrinolysis agent (urokinase) was injected (3000 IU) through the EVD catheter and clamped at 30 minutes, after which the clamp was released and natural drainage was maintained. This procedure was repeated at 8-hour intervals. When the hematoma volume had decreased to < 25% of the initial volume or 72 hours after the operation, the catheter was removed. Routine CT follow-up was carried out 24 hours postoperatively and at 72 hours prior to catheter removal.

Statistical Analysis

All statistical analyses were performed in consultation with a biostatistician using SPSS 19.0 (SPSS Inc.). Continuous variables were analyzed using the Student t-test. The Pearson chi-square test was used to compare mRS outcome at 12 months between the 2 groups. Univariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of age, sex, hematoma location, initial GCS score, internal capsule involvement, hematoma volume, treatment modality, and underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol, and previous ischemic stroke on the 12-month follow-up mRS score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then performed on variables with an unadjusted effect and a p value of < 0.10 on univariate analysis to determine independent associations between favorable outcome and other factors. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Patient demographic characteristics for each group prior to treatment are presented in Table 1. Mean age, hematoma volume, and underlying conditions were not significantly different between the 2 groups. For patients in Group B, the mean hematoma volume was significantly decreased after FNSC treatment (13.7 ± 6.6 cm3) as compared with the mean volume before FNSC (29.3 ± 9.4 cm3, p = 0.001). Additionally, FUNC scores in Group B were improved at 72 hours after FNSC. A preoperative FUNC score of 10 was found in 29 (59%) patients in Group B, a score of 9 in 6 (12%), and a score of 8 in 14 (29%). Postoperatively, a FUNC score of 10 was found in 40 (82%) patients, a score of 9 in 6 (12%), and a score of 8 in 3 (6%).

TABLE 1.

Patient demographic characteristics for each group prior to treatment

CharacteristicGroup A (n = 44)Group B (n = 49)p Value
Age in yrs
  Mean ± SD54.9 ± 11.755.4 ± 12.20.856
  Range31–7531–79
Sex, M:F29:1528:210.234
Affected side, lt:rt19:1012:22
Initial GCS score
  ≥1330290.310
  ≤121420
Hematoma vol in cm3
  Mean ± SD29.5 ± 6.929.3 ± 9.40.940
  Range22–4520–49
FUNC score, no. (%)
  1024 (55)29 (59)
  92 (5)6 (12)
  815 (34)14 (29)
  73 (7)0 (0)
Hematoma location
  Lateral18150.193
  Posterolateral2634
Internal capsule involvement
  Yes24330.366
  No2016
Underlying condition, no. (%)
  Hypertension24 (55)20 (40)0.275
  Diabetes mellitus9 (20)14 (29)0.436
  Previous stroke3 (7)7 (14)0.333
  Smoking21 (48)19 (43)0.746
  Alcohol22 (50)23 (47)0.421
BMI (mean ± SD in kg/m2)23.8 ± 3.824.6 ± 3.10.370

BMI = body mass index.

Outcome parameters are compared between the 2 groups in Table 2. The total hospitalization period was shorter for patients in Group B than for those in Group A (p = 0.006). The duration of NICU stay was almost twice as long for patients in Group A than in Group B (p = 0.001). Group B patients showed earlier recovery of upper- and lower-extremity motor weakness than patients in Group A. Recovery of motor weakness was assessed as the difference between motor weakness measured at the initial evaluation and again at 1, 3, and 12 months after treatment. For both groups, the rate of recovery was faster within the first 3 months than it was at 1 and 12 months. For patients in Group B, however, the overall improvement in motor weakness occurred much earlier than for those in Group A, and the degree of recovery was better in Group B than Group A (p = 0.002 for upper extremities and p = 0.021 for lower extremities at the 12-month follow-up). Improvement of mRS scores showed a similar pattern in recovery of motor weakness. The final mRS score at the 12-month follow-up was more favorable for patients in Group B than for those in Group A (73.5% vs 38.6%, p = 0.006; Fig. 1).

TABLE 2.

Comparison of outcome parameters between the treatment groups

OutcomeGroup A (n = 44)Group B (n = 49)p ValueOR (95% CI)
Mean total HP in days*29.31 ± 24.09717.32 ± 5.4590.006
Mean period in NICU in days*8.93 ± 7.6204.41 ± 1.4380.001
Δ 1-mo mRS score*0.38 ± 0.5611.00 ± 0.7780.001
Δ 3-mo mRS score*1.00 ± 0.8452.06 ± 0.919<0.001
Δ 12-mo mRS score*1.55 ± 0.7362.76 ± 0.890<0.001
Favorable mRS outcome at 12 mos17 (38.6%)36 (73.5%)0.0064.545 (1.560–13.15)
Δ 1-mo affected side motor power
  Upper extremity0.55 ± 0.7831.53 ± 1.53<0.001
  Lower extremity0.41 ± 0.8251.09 ± 1.1640.011
Δ 3-mo affected side motor power
  Upper extremity1.10 ± 0.9762.18 ± 0.999<0.001
  Lower extremity1.03 ± 0.9061.88 ± 1.1490.002
Δ 12-mo affected side motor power
  Upper extremity1.79 ± 0.9782.62 ± 0.9540.002
  Lower extremity1.52 ± 1.1222.24 ± 1.2570.021

HP = hospitalization period; Δ = change between the designated value and the initial value.

Pearson chi-square test.

Favorable mRS outcome defined as an mRS score of 0, 1, or 2.

Student t-test.

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The final mRS scores for the 2 groups after the 12-month follow-up (p = 0.006).

Univariate analysis showed that the initial GCS score, internal capsule involvement, hematoma volume, treatment modality, and the presence of hypertension affected the mRS score at the 12-month follow-up (Table 3). Among these factors, hematoma volume had the greatest effect (OR 10.540, 95% CI 3.094–35.905, p < 0.001) on good clinical outcome. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the predisposing factors for a good clinical outcome were a hematoma volume < 30 cm3 (OR 6.158, 95% CI 1.221–31.053, p = 0.028), an initial GCS score of ≥ 13 (OR 6.331, 95% CI 1.129–35.507, p = 0.036), and the absence of internal capsule involvement (OR 4.680, 95% CI 1.152–19.010, p = 0.031). In particular, FNSC was significantly associated with favorable outcome (OR 13.376, 95% CI 2.423–73.842, p = 0.003).

TABLE 3.

Predisposing factors for good clinical outcome at the 12-month follow-up as indicated by the mRS

FactorUnivariateMultivariate
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Age in yrs
  ≥601
  <601.787 (0.620–5.154)0.282
Sex1
  Male
  Female1.136 (0.390–3.310)0.815
Hematoma location
  Posterolateral1
  Lateral1.257 (0.412–3.835)0.688
Initial GCS score1
  <121
  ≥133.847 (1.257–11.773)0.0186.331 (1.129–35.507)0.036
Internal capsule involvement
  Yes11
  No3.132 (1.023–9.585)0.0454.680 (1.152–19.010)0.031
Hematoma vol in cm311
  ≥30
  <3010.540 (3.094–35.905)<0.0016.158 (1.221–31.053)0.028
Treatment modality
  Medical11
  Surgical4.545 (1.560–13.241)0.00613.376 (2.423–73.842)0.003
Hypertension
  Yes11
  No3.008 (0.968–8.473)0.0973.919 (0.937–14.671)0.083
Diabetes
  Yes1
  No1.474 (0.471–4.608)0.505
Smoking
  Yes1
  No0.894 (0.328–2.436)0.827
Alcohol
  Yes1
  No1.164 (0.424–3.197)0.769
Previous ischemic stroke
  Yes1
  No3.864 (0.688–21.691)0.125

Discussion

In the present study, we found that patients with a hematoma volume between 20 and 30 cm3, an initial GCS score ≥ 13, and the absence of internal capsule involvement experienced a good clinical outcome after FNSC. Among these patients, treatment by FNSC appeared to have a beneficial effect on early recovery of motor weakness and functional outcomes at the 12-month follow-up as compared with medical treatment. The total hospitalization period and NICU stay were shorter in the best medical treatment plus catheterization group (Group B) than in the best medical treatment alone group (Group A). This could translate into reduced costs and improved NICU turnaround time.

Patients with a borderline hematoma volume (20–30 cm3) without direct involvement of the internal capsule could have severe motor weakness not because of internal capsule destruction, but because of internal capsule compression by the hematoma mass itself or subsequent edema. Therefore, removal of the hematoma by FNSC within 24 hours postictus could achieve early decompression of the internal capsule, resulting in good functional outcomes. In addition, a reduction in the hematoma volume may prevent aggravation by neurotoxic edema due to a decrease in blood degradation products. This effect was probably responsible for the earlier recovery of motor weakness, shortening of the acute-stage hospitalization period, earlier rehabilitation, and good functional outcomes in patients from Group B as compared with Group A. We found, consistent with earlier research, that a good initial GCS score was related to a better functional outcome. However, the GCS score does not reflect hemiplegia because the scoring system only assesses best motor power. Thus, a hemiplegic patient with a good initial GCS score may benefit from FNSC in terms of good functional outcomes. Gregson and colleagues suggested that initial GCS score, hematoma volume, and the absence of IVH were predisposing factors for good clinical outcomes for surgical treatment compared with medical treatment.7 However, the location of the ICH, such as the basal ganglia or thalamus, was not associated with significant differences between surgical and medical treatment. The authors reported significantly more favorable outcomes with surgery than with medical treatment when IVH was not present. Patient groups scoring 9–12 and 13–15 on the GCS demonstrated significantly improved outcomes with surgery. Four hematoma groups were recognized based on hematoma volume (in ml): < 20, 20–49, 50–79, and ≥ 80. The only group in which a significant surgical treatment effect was observed was the group with a hematoma volume of 20–49 ml.

Many studies have compared surgical and medical treatment for patients with spontaneous ICH. In addition, many other studies have investigated indications for surgical treatment that ensure clinical benefits. Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to be a possible treatment method for patients with a borderline hematoma volume because the STICH trial showed no overall benefit of early surgery (open craniotomy) compared with medical treatment. Therefore, we examined the beneficial effects of minimally invasive surgery (i.e., FNSC) in patients with a borderline hematoma volume and analyzed predisposing factors that could affect good functional outcomes. Theoretically, surgical removal of a hematoma may be beneficial because it can lower intracranial pressure, improve perfusion, and reduce the chance of edema formation.14 Also, secondary enlargement of the hematoma and neurotoxic edema due to high levels of thrombin and blood degradation products may be reduced.14 This is the primary reason why surgical intervention is considered to be an appropriate ICH treatment option. Open craniotomy with hematoma evacuation was the main surgical treatment method used in studies reporting that surgery has no overall benefit as compared with conservative treatment.2,11,12 However, open craniotomy is risky because of the long operation time, increased amount of parenchymal injury, and procedure-related complications. Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to result in better clinical outcomes than medical treatment or open craniotomy.1,3,5,14–18 A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that minimally invasive surgery had beneficial effects as compared with other treatment options.19 In the present study, FNSC was performed.

There are several limitations to this study. First, it is a retrospective study without randomization; thus, there is potential for significant selection bias. It is possible that the best surgical candidates, or the patients with the best prognoses, were selected to undergo surgery. To overcome this limitation, patients would have had to be randomized with a matched control group. Second, the number of patients is too small to generalize our results. In the present study, we reported the patient characteristics for which stereotactic catheter drainage was beneficial to determine narrow, appropriate, and tailored indications. We speculate that previous large-scale trials failed to prove surgical benefit in patients with ICH because of large sample sizes and the inability to recruit patients with very specific indications. Fonville and colleagues reported that increasing the number of eligibility criteria, restricting premorbid disability, and using a shorter time window for enrollment diminished the proportion of eligible patients.6

Conclusions

Good clinical outcomes might be expected after stereotactic catheter drainage in patients with a hematoma volume between 20 and 30 cm3, an initial GCS score ≥ 13, and the absence of internal capsule involvement. Among these patients with lateral-type basal ganglia hematoma with a borderline volume that compresses but does not involve the internal capsule, stereotactic catheter drainage may be more effective than the best medical treatment in bringing about early recovery from motor weakness and improved functional outcome.

References

  • 1

    Auer LMDeinsberger WNiederkorn KGell GKleinert RSchneider G: Endoscopic surgery versus medical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hematoma: a randomized study. J Neurosurg 70:5305351989

  • 2

    Batjer HHReisch JSAllen BCPlaizier LJSu CJ: Failure of surgery to improve outcome in hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage. A prospective randomized trial. Arch Neurol 47:110311061990

  • 3

    Chen XChen WMa AWu XZheng JYu X: Frameless stereotactic aspiration and subsequent fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg 25:3693752011

  • 4

    Chung CSCaplan LRYamamoto YChang HMLee SJSong HJ: Striatocapsular haemorrhage. Brain 123:185018622000

  • 5

    Dey MStadnik AAwad IA: Spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage: advances in minimally invasive surgery and thrombolytic evacuation, and lessons learned in recent trials. Neurosurgery 74:Suppl 1S142S1502014

  • 6

    Fonville AFSamarasekera NHutchison APerry DRoos YBAl-Shahi Salman R: Eligibility for randomized trials of treatments specifically for intracerebral hemorrhage: community-based study. Stroke 44:272927342013

  • 7

    Gregson BABroderick JPAuer LMBatjer HChen XCJuvela S: Individual patient data subgroup meta-analysis of surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 43:149615042012

  • 8

    Kelly MLSulmasy DPWeil RJ: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and the challenge of surgical decision making: a review. Neurosurg Focus 34:5E12013

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    Kim DYChoo YSJang EWChung JJoo JYKim YB: Clinico-radiological characteristics of spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage, according to regional classification. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg 16:2162242014

  • 10

    Kothari RUBrott TBroderick JPBarsan WGSauerbeck LRZuccarello M: The ABCs of measuring intracerebral hemorrhage volumes. Stroke 27:130413051996

  • 11

    Mendelow ADGregson BAFernandes HMMurray GDTeasdale GMHope DT: Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet 365:3873972005

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    Mendelow ADGregson BARowan ENMurray GDGholkar AMitchell PM: Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral haematomas (STICH II): a randomised trial. Lancet 382:3974082013

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    Rost NSSmith EEChang YSnider RWChanderraj RSchwab K: Prediction of functional outcome in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage: the FUNC score. Stroke 39:230423092008

  • 14

    Teernstra OPEvers SMLodder JLeffers PFranke CLBlaauw G: Stereotactic treatment of intracerebral hematoma by means of a plasminogen activator: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (SICHPA). Stroke 34:9689742003

  • 15

    Wang WZJiang BLiu HMLi DLu CZZhao YD: Minimally invasive craniopuncture therapy vs. conservative treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: results from a randomized clinical trial in China. Int J Stroke 4:11162009

  • 16

    Zan XLi HLiu WFang YMa JLan Z: Endoscopic surgery versus conservative treatment for the moderate-volume hematoma in spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage (ECMOH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Neurol 12:342012

  • 17

    Zhou HZhang YLiu LHan XTao YTang Y: A prospective controlled study: minimally invasive stereotactic puncture therapy versus conventional craniotomy in the treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. BMC Neurol 11:762011

  • 18

    Zhou HZhang YLiu LHuang YTang YSu J: Minimally invasive stereotactic puncture and thrombolysis therapy improves long-term outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol 258:6616692011

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    Zhou XChen JLi QRen GYao GLiu M: Minimally invasive surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 43:292329302012

Disclosures

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: Hong, Chung. Acquisition of data: Choo, Chung, Kim. Analysis and interpretation of data: Choo, Chung. Drafting the article: Choo. Critically revising the article: all authors. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: all authors. Approved the final version of the manuscript on behalf of all authors: Hong. Statistical analysis: Choo, Chung. Study supervision: Hong, Chung, Joo.

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Article Information

INCLUDE WHEN CITING Published online February 12, 2016; DOI: 10.3171/2015.10.JNS151643.

Correspondence Chang-Ki Hong, Department of Neurosurgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211, Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-720, Republic of Korea. email: yedamin@yuhs.ac.

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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Figures

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    The final mRS scores for the 2 groups after the 12-month follow-up (p = 0.006).

References

  • 1

    Auer LMDeinsberger WNiederkorn KGell GKleinert RSchneider G: Endoscopic surgery versus medical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hematoma: a randomized study. J Neurosurg 70:5305351989

  • 2

    Batjer HHReisch JSAllen BCPlaizier LJSu CJ: Failure of surgery to improve outcome in hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage. A prospective randomized trial. Arch Neurol 47:110311061990

  • 3

    Chen XChen WMa AWu XZheng JYu X: Frameless stereotactic aspiration and subsequent fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg 25:3693752011

  • 4

    Chung CSCaplan LRYamamoto YChang HMLee SJSong HJ: Striatocapsular haemorrhage. Brain 123:185018622000

  • 5

    Dey MStadnik AAwad IA: Spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage: advances in minimally invasive surgery and thrombolytic evacuation, and lessons learned in recent trials. Neurosurgery 74:Suppl 1S142S1502014

  • 6

    Fonville AFSamarasekera NHutchison APerry DRoos YBAl-Shahi Salman R: Eligibility for randomized trials of treatments specifically for intracerebral hemorrhage: community-based study. Stroke 44:272927342013

  • 7

    Gregson BABroderick JPAuer LMBatjer HChen XCJuvela S: Individual patient data subgroup meta-analysis of surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 43:149615042012

  • 8

    Kelly MLSulmasy DPWeil RJ: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and the challenge of surgical decision making: a review. Neurosurg Focus 34:5E12013

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