Major contributions to the understanding of human brain function have come from detailed clinical reports of responses evoked by electrical stimulation and specific brain regions during neurosurgical procedures in awake humans. In this study, microstimulation evoked responses and extracellular unit recordings were obtained intraoperatively in 3 awake patients undergoing bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus. The microstimulation evoked responses exhibited a clear anatomical distribution. Anxiety was most reliably evoked by stimulation directed ventromedially within or adjacent to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nausea was most reliably evoked by stimulation directed at the center of the lateral hypothalamus, and paresthesias were most reliably evoked by stimulation at the border of the lateral hypothalamus and basal nuclei. Regarding the unit recordings, the firing rates of individual neurons did not have an anatomical distribution, but a small subpopulation of neurons located at the border of the lateral hypothalamus and basal nuclei exhibited a fast rhythmically bursting behavior with an intraburst frequency of 200–400 Hz and an interburst frequency of 10–20 Hz. Based on animal studies, the lateral hypothalamic area and surrounding hypothalamic nuclei are putatively involved with a variety of physiological, behavioral, and sensory functions. The lateral hypothalamus is situated to play a dynamic and complex role in human behavior and this report further shows that to be true. In addition, this report should serve as a valuable resource for future intracranial work in which accurate targeting within this region is required.
Abbreviations used in this paper: DBS = deep brain stimulation; RMS = root mean square; VMH = ventromedial hypothalamus.
Address correspondence to: Donald M. Whiting, M.D., Department of Neurosurgery, Allegheny General Hospital, 420 East North Avenue, Suite 302, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212. email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please include this information when citing this paper: published online April 15, 2011; DOI: 10.3171/2011.3.JNS101574.
KoikeYShimaFNakamizoAMiyagiY: Direct localization of subthalamic nucleus supplemented by single-track electrophysiological guidance in deep brain stimulation lead implantation: techniques and clinical results. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg86:173–1782008
KoikeY, ShimaF, NakamizoA, MiyagiY: Direct localization of subthalamic nucleus supplemented by single-track electrophysiological guidance in deep brain stimulation lead implantation: techniques and clinical results. 86:173–178, 2008)| false