Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a novel, minimally invasive technique to treat cancer, which is unique because of its nonthermal mechanism of tumor ablation. This paper evaluates the safety of an NTIRE procedure to lesion normal canine brain tissue.
The NTIRE procedure involved placing electrodes into a targeted area of brain in 3 dogs and delivering a series of short and intense electric pulses. The voltages of the pulses applied were varied between dogs. Another dog was used as a sham control. One additional dog was treated at an extreme voltage to determine the upper safety limits of the procedure. Ultrasonography was used at the time of the procedure to determine if the lesions could be visualized intraoperatively. The volumes of ablated tissue were then estimated on postprocedure MR imaging. Histological brain sections were then analyzed to evaluate the lesions produced.
The animals tolerated the procedure with no apparent complications except for the animal that was treated at the upper voltage limit. The lesion volume appeared to decrease with decreasing voltage of applied pulses. Histological examination revealed cell death within the treated volume with a submillimeter transition zone between necrotic and normal brain.
The authors' results reveal that NTIRE at selected voltages can be safely administered in normal canine brain and that the volume of ablated tissue correlates with the voltage of the applied pulses. This preliminary study is the first step toward using NTIRE as a brain cancer treatment.
Abbreviation used in this paper: NTIRE = nonthermal irreversible electroporation.
Address correspondence to: Rafael V. Davalos, Ph.D., School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 329 ICTAS Building, Stanger Street (MC 0298), Blacksburg, Virginia 24061. email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please include this information when citing this paper: published online June 18, 2010; DOI: 10.3171/2010.5.JNS091448.
AtsumiHMatsumaeMKanedaMMuroIMamataYKomiyaT: Novel laser system and laser irradiation method reduced the risk of carbonization during laser interstitial thermotherapy: assessed by MR temperature measurement. Lasers Surg Med29:108–1172001
EscoffreJMPortetTWasunguLTeissiéJDeanDRolsMP: What is (still not) known of the mechanism by which electroporation mediates gene transfer and expression in cells and tissues. Mol Biotechnol41:286–2952009
JaffeR: The Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Recommendations for Treatment, Training, and Privileging: A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association. 2nd edAm J Psychiatry159:3312002. (Book review)
LeonardiMALumentaCBGumprechtHKvon EinsiedelGHWilhelmT: Stereotactic guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (SLITT) in gliomas with intraoperative morphologic monitoring in an open MR-unit. Minim Invasive Neurosurg44:37–422001
MiklavcicDSemrovDMekidHMirLM: A validated model of in vivo electric field distribution in tissues for electrochemotherapy and for DNA electrotransfer for gene therapy. Biochim Biophys Acta1523:73–832000