Arteriovenous malformations are generally considered to be cured following angiographically proven complete resection. However, rare instances of AVM recurrence despite negative findings on postoperative angiography have been reported in both children and adults. In this paper, the authors present the case of a 33-year-old woman with 2 AVM recurrences. This patient represents the oldest case of recurrent AVM, and the first adult double recurrence reported in the literature. The case is presented, the radiological and surgical features are considered, and the literature on recurrent AVMs is reviewed.
Abbreviations used in this paper: AVM = arteriovenous malformation; PCA = posterior cerebral artery; SSS = superior sagittal sinus; VA = vertebral artery; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.
Address correspondence to: Christopher S. Ogilvy, M.D., Neurovascular Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, VBK 710, Boston, Massachusetts 02114-2698. email:
SonsteinWJKaderAMichelsenWJLlenaJFHiranoACasperD: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pediatric and adult cerebral arteriovenous malformations: an immunocytochemical study. J Neurosurg85:838–8451996
SonsteinWJ, KaderA, MichelsenWJ, LlenaJF, HiranoA, CasperD: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in pediatric and adult cerebral arteriovenous malformations: an immunocytochemical study. 85:838–845, 1996)| false
YaşargilMG: Microneurosurgery: AVM of the Brain Clinical Considerations General and Special Operative Techniques Surgical Results Nonoperated Cases Cavernous and Venous Angiomas NeuroanesthesiaNew YorkThieme1988. Vol IIIB
YaşargilMG: New York, Thieme, 1988. Vol IIIB)| false