Intracerebral Hematoma Lysis

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Object

Currently no adequate surgical treatment exists for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Implantable polymers can be used effectively to deliver therapeutic agents to the local site of the pathological process, thus reducing adverse systemic effects. The authors report the use of stereotactically implanted polymers loaded with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to induce lysis of ICH in a rabbit model.

Methods

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVAc) polymers were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) only or with BSA plus tPA. In vitro pharmacokinetic (three polymers) and thrombolysis (12 polymers) studies were performed. For the in vivo study, 12 rabbits were fixed in a stereotactic frame, and 0.2 ml of clotted autologous blood was injected into the right frontal lobe parenchyma. After 20 minutes, control BSA polymers were stereotactically implanted at the hemorrhage site in six rabbits, and experimental BSA plus tPA polymers were implanted in six rabbits. Animals were killed at 3 days, and blood clot volume was assessed.

The pharmacokinetic study showed release of 146 ng of tPA over 3 days. The tPA activity correlated with in vitro thrombolysis. In the in vivo study, the six animals treated with tPA polymers had a mean (±standard error of the mean [SEM]) thrombus volume of 1.43 ±0.29 mm3 at 3 days, whereas the six animals treated with blank (BSA-only) polymers had a mean (±SEM) thrombus volume of 19.99 ±3.74 mm3 (p <0.001).

Conclusions

Ethylene vinyl acetate polymers release tPA over the course of 3 days. Stereotactic implantation of tPA-loaded EVAc polymers significantly reduced ICH volume. Polymers loaded with tPA may be useful clinically for lysis of ICH without the side effects of systemic administration of tPA.

Article Information

© AANS, except where prohibited by US copyright law.

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References

  • 1

    Kaur JZhao ZKlein GMLo EHBuchan AM: The neurotoxicity of tissue plasminogen activator?. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:9459632004

  • 2

    Rohde VRohde IThiex RInce AJung ADuckers G: Fibrinolysis therapy achieved with tissue plasminogen activator and aspiration of the liquefied clot after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage: rapid reduction in hematoma volume but intensification of delayed edema formation. J Neurosurg 97:9549622002

  • 3

    Thiex RRohde VRohde IMayfrank LZeki ZThron A: Frame-based and frameless stereotactic hematoma puncture and subsequent fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol 251:144314502004

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